Diversity in Collection Development:


An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Collection development should reflect the philosophy inherent in Article II of the Library Bill of Rights:  “Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues.  Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.”  Library collections must represent the diversity of people and ideas in our society.  There are many complex facets to any issue, and many contexts in which issues may be expressed, discussed, or interpreted.  Librarians have an obligation to select and support access to materials and resources on all subjects that meet, as closely as possible, the needs, interests, and abilities of all persons in the community the library serves.

Librarians have a professional responsibility to be inclusive, not exclusive, in collection development and in the provision of interlibrary loan.  Access to all materials and resources legally obtainable should be assured to the user, and policies should not unjustly exclude materials and resources even if they are offensive to the librarian or the user.  This includes materials and resources that reflect a diversity of political, economic, religious, social, minority, and sexual issues.  A balanced collection reflects a diversity of materials and resources, not an equality of numbers.

Collection development responsibilities include selecting materials and resources in different formats produced by independent, small and local producers as well as information resources from major producers and distributors.  Materials and resources should represent the languages commonly used in the library’s service community and should include formats that meet the needs of users with disabilities.  Collection development and the selection of materials and resources should be done according to professional standards and established selection and review procedures.  Librarians may seek to increase user awareness of materials and resources on various social concerns by many means, including, but not limited to, issuing lists of resources, arranging exhibits, and presenting programs.

Over time, individuals, groups, and entities have sought to limit the diversity of library collections.  They cite a variety of reasons that include prejudicial language and ideas, political content, economic theory, social philosophies, religious beliefs, sexual content and expression, and other potentially controversial topics.  Examples of such censorship may include removing or not selecting materials because they are considered by some as racist or sexist; not purchasing conservative religious materials; not selecting resources about or by minorities because it is thought these groups or interests are not represented in a community; or not providing information or materials from or about non-mainstream political entities.  Librarians have a professional responsibility to be fair, just, and equitable and to give all library users equal protection in guarding against violation of the library patron’s right to read, view, or listen to materials and resources protected by the First Amendment, no matter what the viewpoint of the author, creator, or selector.  Librarians have an obligation to protect library collections from removal of materials and resources based on personal bias or prejudice.

Intellectual freedom, the essence of equitable library services, provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause, or movement may be explored.  Toleration is meaningless without tolerance for what some may consider detestable.  Librarians must not permit their own preferences to limit their degree of tolerance in collection development.


Adopted July 14, 1982, by the ALA Council; amended January 10, 1990; July 2, 2008.

[ISBN 8389-6552-0]