1. Doing Quantitative Research

This purpose of this section is to help librarians learn how to design quantitative research projects, analyze their data and present this data in a meaningful way. These sites can help with both the basics and more sophisticated designs.

We welcome suggestions for additional web sites. For this section, please send suggestions to John S. Spencer (spencer@gonzaga.edu) or Janelle Hedstrom (jhedstrom@austin.utexas.edu).

Introductory Sites on Quantitative Research

"What is a Survey?"


he American Statistical Association developed a series to promote a better understanding of what is involved in carrying out surveys, especially those aspects that have to be taken into account in evaluating the results of surveys.

HyperStat Online Textbook


This is a clearly written and well organized online statistics textbook by <?XML:NAMESPACE PREFIX = ST1 />David M. Lane of Rice University. It discusses univariate and bivariate data, probability, normal and sampling distributions, testing hypotheses, prediction, and chi-square, and more. The site includes links to other introductory texts.

Multivariate Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications


This online textbook is an extension of the book Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models, and Applications, by the same author, David W. Stockburger of Southwest Missouri State University. The work expands on univariate statistical methods gradually, first thoroughly exploring bivariate statistical methods and culminating with multiple regression models. Analysis of Variance is approached as a special case of multiple regression. Includes a bibliography and links to other sites.

Survey Design


An outline of the survey design process: establishing goals, determining the sample and its size, selecting interview methodology, creating the questionnaire, carrying out the survey, analyzing the data. Provided by Creative Research Systems, a software design group targeting professionals, academics and others who use questionnaires.

Dictionaries and Glossaries for Quantitative Research

Statistics Glossary


Contains basic definitions and examples of presenting data, sampling, probability, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, paired data, correlation and regression, design of experiments, ANOVA, categorical data, and non-parametric methods. Presented by University of Glasgow.

StatSoft Statistics Glossary


Extensive glossary of statistical terms and concepts prepared by the developers of STATISTICA software, Statsoft Inc. The entries are taken from the electronic manual of STATISTICA and some contain elements that refer to specific features of the system. This is an excellent glossary with definitions of terms relevant to statistical research.

Calculators for Quantitative Research

Interactive Statistical Calculation Pages


A listing of web pages that perform statistical calculations, edited by John C. Pezullo of Georgetown University. The first section contains links that assist in determining the most appropriate statistical test to employ for the purpose at hand. Other sections include links to calculator, plotters, function integrators and interactive programming environments, probability distribution functions, descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, sample comparisons (t-tests, ANOVAs, non-parametric comparisons), contingency tables, and more.

Sample Size Calculator


A calculator that enables you to determine the size of sample that you need for a combination of a specified total population, confidence interval and confidence level. A separate calculator enables users to establish the confidence interval for a specified sample size, total population, and confidence level. It includes a clear explanation of the terms, and of the factors that affect confidence intervals. Presented by Creative Research Systems.

Software for Quantitative Research

SAS Institute


Statistical Analysis System. Offers SAS Online Samples

SPSS Inc.'s Home Page


SPSS is one of the most commonly used statistical analysis tools available and can help turn data into meaningful numbers. This site offers supplementary information for SPSS users such as manuals, demos and white papers.



An expert system that helps users solve statistical problems and find the proper test method. It consists of a decision network: you provide the answer to a question relating to your problem, and are then presented with alternative lines of action which meet specific requirements until you arrive at the solution. Developed by Dominik Heeb.