State of America's Libraries Report


American Library Association. Libraries’ Guide to the 2020 Census. January 2020.

_______. “Library Funding.”

_______. “National Library Week.”

_______. “2020 Census.”

_______. “What Libraries Do.” I Love Libraries initiative.

_______. Office for Intellectual Freedom. Banned & Challenged Books. “Top Ten Most Challenged Books Lists.”

_______. Public Policy and Advocacy Office. “ALA President to Speak at U.S. Census Bureau Press Conference.” Media release, March 27, 2019.

_______. _______. “ALA Welcomes Supreme Court Decision to Hold Citizenship Question from 2020 Census.” Media release, June 27, 2019.

_______. Public Programs Office. “ALA Announces Participants in Racial Healing Circle Workshop with AAC&U.” Media release, February 8, 2019.

Brown, Wanda Kay. “Find Your Place within ALA.” American Libraries, From the President column, July/August 2019.

Clark, Larra. “ALA Joins Groups Opposing Census Citizenship Question.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, April 2, 2019.

Kromer, Kathi. “IMLS Receives $10 Million Increase in FY2020.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, December 20, 2019.

US Census Bureau. “Complete Count Committees.”

_______. “2019 Census Day.”

W. K. Kellogg Foundation. “Truth, Racial Healing & Transformation.”

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Public Libraries

American Library Association. America’s Libraries: Powering Broadband Adoption, Access, and Use. November 8, 2016.

_______. Public Library Association. DigitalLearn.

_______. _______. “Family Engagement.”

_______. _______. “Libraries Lead with Digital Skills.”

_______. _______. “Promoting Healthy Communities: Libraries Connecting You to Coverage.”

_______. _______. “Public Library Social Work—Overview of Trauma-Informed Care.”

_______. _______. “Resources for Public Libraries Serving Persons Experiencing Homelessness.”

_______. _______. “Social Worker Task Force.”

Beaverton (Oreg.) City Library. “Library of Things.”

Becker, Samantha, et al. Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Museum and Library Services, March 2010, p. 7.

Bertot, John Carlo, et al. 2014 Digital Inclusion Survey: Survey Findings and Results. College Park, Md.: University of Maryland Information Policy and Access Center, October 1, 2015, p. 62. 

Chance, Rachel. “File under Bee.” American Libraries 50, no. 9/10 (September/October 2019): 14–17.

Dankowski, Terra, and Brian Mead. “The Library of Things.” American Libraries 48, no. 6 (June 2017): 48–49.

Dearing, Eric, et al. “Family Involvement in School and Low-Income Children’s Literacy Performance.” Journal of Educational Psychology 98 (2006): 653–664.

Glum, Julia. “200 Random Things Libraries Will Let You Check Out for Free—From Instant Pots to Skulls.” Money, May 16, 2019.

Google. “Grow with Google.”

Lenstra, Noah, and Jenny Carlos. “Public Libraries and Walkable Neighborhoods.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 10 (May 2019): 1780.

McCarthy, Justin. “In U.S., Library Visits Outpaced Trips to Movies in 2019.” Gallup, January 24, 2020.

Rainie, Lee. “How the Public Grades Libraries—and Uses Libraries.” Slide 14, “How much have libraries contributed to their communities?” Pew Research Center, June 27, 2016.

Steinberg, Laurence. Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014.

Van Bergen, Elsje, et al. “Why Are Home Literacy Environment and Children’s Reading Skills Associated? What Parental Skills Reveal.” Reading Research Quarterly 52, no. 2 (Apr.–June 2017): 147–160.

Wapner, Charlie. “The People’s Incubator: Libraries Propel Entrepreneurship.” OITP Perspectives, no. 4. Washington, D.C.: ALA Office for Information Technology Policy, June 2016.

Zettervall, Sara. “Whole Person Librarianship.”

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Academic Libraries

American Library Association. Association of College and Research Libraries. “ACRL Academic Library Trends and Statistics: 2019 Survey Information.”

______. _______. “ACRLMetrics.”

______. _______. 2018 ACRL Academic Library Trends and Statistics for Carnegie Classifications. Chicago: ACRL, 2019.

Association of American Colleges and Universities. “High-Impact Educational Practices.”

Duffin, Erin. “Undergraduate Enrollment in U.S. Universities 2008–2019.” Statista, November 6, 2019.

Indiana University. National Survey of Student Engagement. “High-Impact Practices.”

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School Libraries

Allen, Jim. “School Libraries Targeted as Spokane Public Schools Issues Layoff Notices.” Spokane (Wash.) Spokesman-Review, April 12, 2019.

American Library Association. American Association of School Librarians. “National School Library Standards: Common Beliefs.”

_______. _______. National School Library Standards for Learners, School Librarians, and School Libraries. Chicago: AASL, 2018.

Cohen, Stephanie, et al. Roles of the School Librarian: Empowering Student Learning and Success. Informational Brief. Portsmouth, N.H.: Northeast Comprehensive Center, [2019].

Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation. School Library Impact Studies: A Review of Findings and Guide to Sources. Owings Mills, Md.: Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation, August 12, 2013.

Lankes, R. David, and Mike Corbo. “The Value of School Librarians.” American Libraries, January 15, 2019.

Levin, Koby. “Amid a Literacy Crisis, Michigan’s School Librarians Have All But Disappeared.” Chalkbeat, August 8, 2019.

Moran, Gwen. “We’re in a Data Literacy Crisis: Could Librarians Be the Superheroes We Need?” Fortune, August 31, 2019.

Purcell, Kristen, et al. “Part II: The Mixed Impact of Digital Technologies on Student Research.” Pew Research Center, November 1, 2012.

Rowe, Adam. “U.S. Public Schools Have Lost Nearly 20% of Their Librarians since 2000.” Forbes, May 21, 2018.

Wineburg, Sam, et al. “Evaluating Information: The Cornerstone of Civic Online Reasoning.” Executive Summary. Stanford University, Stanford History Education Group, November 22, 2016. Available in the Stanford Digital Repository.

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Issues and Trends

Intellectual Freedom

American Library Association. “ALA Responds to Citrus County New York Times Block.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, November 5, 2019.

_______. Office for Intellectual Freedom. Banned & Challenged Books. “Top Ten Most Challenged Books Lists.”

_______. _______. “New Library Bill of Rights Provision Recognizes and Defends Library Users’ Privacy.” Media release, February 7, 2019.

Flood, Alison. “US Prisons Banning Thousands of Books ‘on Arbitrary Grounds.’” The Guardian (UK), September 26, 2019.

Herther, Nancy. “ATG Original: Censorship and the Struggle over Content in the Internet Age: Part 2, The Vendor Conundrum.” Against the Grain, April 1, 2019.

Pekoll, Kristin. “‘Prince and Knight’ Challenge in Upshur County, WV.” Intellectual Freedom Blog, November 19, 2019.

Price, Richard. “The Censorship War in Loudoun County.” Intellectual Freedom Blog, December 2, 2019.

Slocum, Rebecca. “Author, Please Come! Nevermind. Please Don’t.” Intellectual Freedom Blog, May 2, 2018.

Stack, Liam. “Drag Queen Story Hour Continues Its Reign at Libraries, Despite Backlash.” New York Times, June 6, 2019.

Weill-Greenberg, Elizabeth. “Illinois Department of Corrections Revises Book Ban Policy.” The Appeal, November 4, 2019.

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Net Neutrality

American Library Association. Public Policy and Advocacy Office. “DC Circuit Court Delivers Mixed Ruling on Net Neutrality.” Media release, October 1, 2019.

Bracci, Aria, and Lia Petronio. “New Research Shows That, Post Net Neutrality, Internet Providers Are Slowing Down Your Streaming.” News@Northeastern University, September 10, 2018.

Dean, Danielle. “The Debate over Net Neutrality.” National Conference of State Legislatures. Our American States: The NCSL Podcast 26, no. 16 (April 2018).

McCabe, David. “Court Upholds Net Neutrality Repeal, with Some Caveats.” New York Times, October 1, 2019.

Building 21st-Century Skills

American Library Association. “Digital Literacy.”

_______. “Libraries Ready to Code.”

_______. Public Library Association. “Libraries Lead with Digital Skills.”

_______. Public Policy and Advocacy Office. “ALA, PLA Select First Round of Libraries Lead with Digital Skills Awardees.” Media release, April 23, 2019.

Anderson, Monica, and Madhumitha Kumar. “Digital Divide Persists Even As Lower-Income Americans Make Gains in Tech Adoption.” Pew Research Center Fact Tank, May 7, 2019.

Digital Equity for Learning. “Digital Equity + Opportunity for All.”

Eastman, Jaime. “Bridging the Digital Divide with Circulating Tech.”

“Libraries Evolve to Bridge Digital Divide.” University of Denver, Morgridge College of Education. Blog, November 21, 2018.

National Center for Education Statistics. Student Access to Digital Learning Resources Outside of the Classroom. Washington, D.C.: NCES, April 2018.

Services to Teens

Afterschool Alliance. “This Is Afterschool: Building Workforce Skills and Inspiring Future Careers.” Washington, D.C.: Afterschool Alliance, June 2019.

American Library Association. Young Adult Library Services Association. “Future Ready with the Library.”

_______. _______. “Transforming Teen Services: A Train the Trainer Approach.”

Callahan, Jessica, et al. Influences on Occupational Identity in Adolescence: A Review of Research Programs. Irvine, Calif.: Connected Learning Alliance, May 2019.

World Economic Forum. The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills, and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum, January 2016.

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Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion

American Library Association. “Access to Library Resources and Services.”

_______. “Challenge Reporting.”

_______. “EDI in Our Libraries.”

_______. “Keys to Engaging Older Adults.” 2018.

_______. “Libraries Respond: Cyber-Bullying and Doxxing.”

_______. “Literacy for All: Adult Literacy through Libraries.” 2019.

_______. “2020 Youth Media Award Winners.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, January 27, 2020.

_______. “Workshops and Consultations.” 

_______. Communications and Marketing Office. “ALA and US Library Associations Affirm Commitment to Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion.”

_______. Council. “Resolution on Monetary Library Fines as a Form of Social Inequity.” 2019 Midwinter Meeting, Council Document #38, January 27, 2019.

_______. Ethnic and Multicultural Information Exchange Round Table. “CSK Programs in 2019.”

_______. Office for Diversity, Literacy, and Outreach Services. “Hateful Conduct in Libraries: Supporting Library Workers and Patrons.” In partnership with the ALA Office for Intellectual Freedom, January 2019. 

“Assistive Technologies: Spotlight on DC Public Library Center for Accessibility.” ALSC Blog, December 14, 2019.

Bloomfield Township (Mich.) Public Library. “Accessibility Support Collection.”

Brooklyn (N.Y.) Public Library. “Inclusive Services.”

City of Chicago. Office of the Mayor. “Mayor Lightfoot and Chicago Public Library Announce Elimination of Late Fees, Outstanding Debt to Increase Access to Libraries Citywide.” Media release, September 30, 2019.

Damron, Michael. “A Sensory Wonderland.” American Libraries 50, no. 6 (June 2019): 24–25.

Free Library of Philadelphia. “Say Goodbye to Overdue Fines at the Free Library!” Blog, February 14, 2020.

Institute of Museum and Library Services. “Accessibility.”

Library Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Nashville, Tennessee. “Library.”

Minehardt, Jennifer. “Assistive Technologies: Spotlight on Carrie Banks.” ALSC Blog, October 12, 2019.

Mitchell, Ross E. “How Many Deaf People Are There in the United States? Estimates from the Survey of Income and Program Participation.” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 11, no. 1 (Winter 2006): 112–119.

Montgomery County (Md.) Public Libraries. “Maryland Deaf Culture Digital Library.”

Morehart, Phil. “The Power of Diverse Books.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, November 15, 2019.

National Black Deaf Advocates. “Publications.”

Pinellas Public Library Cooperative, Clearwater, Florida. “Deaf Literacy Center: A Bridge to the World of Information.”

“Publishing Statistics on Children’s/YA Books about People of Color and First/Native Nations and by People of Color and First/Native Nations Authors and Illustrators.” Cooperative Children’s Book Center, School of Education, University of Wisconsin–Madison, November 21, 2019.

San Francisco Public Library. “San Francisco Public Library Is Fabulously Fine Free.” Media release, September 16, 2019.

SinhaRoy, Sanhita. “20 Years of the MLK Sunrise Celebration.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, January 28, 2019.

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American Library Association. Communications and Marketing Office. “ALA Adding Sustainability As a Core Value of Librarianship.” Media release, May 14, 2019.

American Library Association. Sustainability Round Table.

_______. _______. [Sustainability database.]

Lane, Julie. “Library Gains ‘Green Business Partnership Certification.’” Shelter Island (N.Y.) Reporter, February 18, 2020.

Rockrohr, Phil. “Climate Change and Sustainability.” American Libraries, October 9, 2019.

Santa Monica (Calif.) Public Library. “The Green Prize for Sustainable Literature.”

United Nations. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Global Warming of 1.5° C. [New York]: United Nations, October 8, 2018.

I Love My Librarian Award

American Library Association. “Meet the I Love My Librarian Award Winners.” American Libraries, The Scoop blog, December 10, 2019.

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American Library Association. “#eBooksFor All.”

_______. Public Policy and Advocacy Office. “ALA ‘Concerned’ over Hachette Book Group Ebook and Audio Book Lending Model Changes.” Media release, June 17, 2019.

_______. _______. “ALA Denounces New Macmillan Library Lending Model, Urges Library Customers to Voice Objections.” Media release, July 25, 2019.

_______. _______. “ALA Turns to Congress As Macmillan Ignores Public Call to Reverse Library E-book Embargo.” Media release, November 1, 2019.

_______. _______. “ALA Uneasy about Simon & Schuster Digital Lending Model Changes.” Media release, July 2, 2019.

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Libraries of the future

Arizona State University Library. “Get Your Books Delivered!” The Library Channel, August 5, 2019.

Baldassari, Erin. “Meet BookBot: Mountain View Library’s Newest Robot Helper.” San Jose (Calif.) Mercury News, March 9, 2019.

Burns, Ridgeway, Melisa Martinez, and Karen Keefe. “Book Box: How a Cardboard Box Became Our Trendiest Teen Program.” Illinois Library Association Reporter 36, no. 6 (December 2018).

City of Boston. Transportation Department. “Boston, MBTA Partner to Offer CharlieCards at City Hall and Library Locations.” Media release, May 7, 2019.

_______. _______. “Go Boston 2030.”

City of Knoxville, Tennessee. Knoxville Area Transit. “Books on Buses Program Makes Reading Accessible.” Media release, May 30, 2019.

Crowe, Caitlin. “The Library Is a Smart City’s ‘Hub for Digital Intelligence.’” Smart Cities Dive, January 27, 2020.

Fay, Brigham. “Inside ‘The Laughing Room.’” MIT News, December 5, 2018.

Garcia-Febo, Loida. “Exploring AI.” American Libraries, From the President column, March/April 2019.

Lavallee, Dave. “URI Opens First Artificial Intelligence Lab Housed in a University Library.” URI Today, September 28, 2018.

Lyons, Kim. “These Engineers Are Trying to Rescue a ‘Bookbot’ from the Google Graveyard.” The Verge, February 12, 2020.

Sudo, Chuck. “Co-Located Senior Housing, Libraries Open with Nearly Full Occupancy.” Senior Housing News, October 2, 2019.

Toledo–Lucas County (Ohio) Public Library. “Check Us Out 24/7.” Blog, February 2020.

Topeka and Shawnee County (Kan.) Public Library. “Smart Lockers.”

University of Arizona. “Student Success District.”

Young, Jeffrey R. “Bots in the Library? Colleges Try AI to Help Researchers (But with Caution).” EdSurge, June 14, 2019.

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State of America's Libraries Report