Fall 1999



Message from the Chair | | Minutes | | Liaison Reports | | LHRT Website Report
1999 LHRT Annual Program Summary | | A Grand Event Nets A Grand Amount
Library of CongressBicentennial Symposium | | Awards & Presentations
Call for Papers, Nominations & Authors | | SHARP | |
News About Library History andthe State Associations
Pamela Spence Richards | | 1900 Library Chronology | | Just In Time for the New Millennium
Library History Bibliography, Fall 1999

Message From The Chair

Dear LHRT Members:

The fall issue of the LHRT Newsletter, the last issue for this century, comes to you with mixed emotions. My gratitude is extended to the LHRT membership for electing me to chair the Round Table for the year 1999-2000. It takes very little time to learn that we are fortunate to have so many supportive members working endlessly to achieve LHRT's mission "to encourage research and publication on library history and promote an awareness and discussion of historical issues in librarianship." It is an honor to serve a dedicated, hardworking, and distinguished group of colleagues. Thank you.

My heart is saddened by the passing of our colleague and friend, Professor Pamela Spence Richards (1941-1999). I met Pam while serving on the ALISE International Relations Committee, and was heartened that she took keen interest in my "Africa" research and experience. I have vivid memories of one of our last conversations when Pam, serving as chair of the LHRT Nominating Committee, invited me to run as chair-elect of the Round Table. Her spirit, scholarship, and support will be missed. Our condolences are extended to her family, friends, and colleagues. Donald Davis's tribute to Pam appears in this issue of the Newsletter. LHRT members are encouraged to visit the Rutgers University SCILS website created in her honor INSERT URL

ALA in New Orleans was productive on all fronts. Congratulations to David Hovde and Robert Freeman for planning and executing two successful programs: "Bringing Libraries to the People: Outreach to Groups," and "Bringing Libraries to the People: Innovative Strategies." In addition to the conference program, a well-attended, financially-rewarding, and fun-filled LHRT auction was held on June 26th. Many thanks to Michelle Cloonan and Lee Shiflett for their efforts in planning and executing this event. Thanks to Sid Berger for serving as the auctioneer and kudos to Crescent City Books, New Orleans for graciously hosting and supporting our fundraiser. Thanks to Mark Tucker and Mary Jo Lynch for presenting us with the revised copy of the LHRT Handbook for Officers. Copies are available from the ALA Office for Research and Statistics. Furthermore, we are pleased to announce that the Donald G. Davis Article Award and Eliza Atkins Gleason Book Award were approved by the ALA Awards Committee. Mark Tucker and members of the Research Committee are busy reviewing submissions for the Davis Award and establishing a publicity and submission schedule for the Gleason Award. A special "thanks," to David Hovde, immediate past president, and Steve Sowards, immediate past secretary, Mark Tucker, Mary Jo Lynch, Gerald Greenberg, and Ed Goedeken for assisting me with the transition. Much appreciation is also extended to the 1999-2000 LHRT officers and members of committees willingness to serve, and to current members for your willingness to participate and support LHRT activities. We welcome your involvement.

One priority for the year is to establish a commitment to promoting and/or enhancing the awareness and discussion of historical issues in librarianship within the state library associations and the ethnic library associations. I have appointed members of ethnic associations to the Research, Nominating. and the Justin Winsor Prize Committees. Other efforts will include strengthening our relationship with the history-related units within these associations, where they exist, and by increasing our visibility within the same. In pursuit of this objective, this issue of the Newsletter includes reports from a few of the history-related units within state library associations. Our hope is to establish channels of communication between these units and LHRT so that "Library History in the State Library Associations" will become a regular feature. Similar efforts will be undertaken to cooperate with the ethnic library associations.

For the LHRT 2000 Program and Research Forum in Chicago, I have selected the theme "Communities Build Libraries: The History, Politics, and Development of Linkages Between Communities and Libraries," a juxtaposition of ALA President Sarah Long's theme "Libraries Build Community." We all know, to paraphrase Jared Diamond, that library history, the history of reading, the history of book culture, etc. have proceeded very differently for communities, especially communities of color. Many communities, often without library service, built their won libraries and also labored to encourage libraries to collect and preserve the histories of their people. The LHRT Program on June 16 will provide an opportunity for us to reflect upon the history of the people, politics, and linkages between communities and libraries. I encourage LHRT members and others to submit proposal. The deadline is March 1, 2000.

Enjoy and share ALA Past President and LHRT member Elizabeth Stone's chronology for 1899. I also invite you to visit our web site at <http://www.ala.org/lhrt/&gt;

Please plan to attend the LHRT Midwinter Meeting in San Antonio. I'll look forward to seeing you there.

Sibyl E. Moses


LHRT Executive Committee Meeting, Sunday, June 27, 1999
ALA Annual Conference, New Orleans LA

1.Introductions and approval of previous minutes

The Chair, David Hovde, called the meeting to order at 11:30 a.m. in LaGalerie Five of the New Orleans Marriott Hotel (after taking photographs of the present and incoming officers, to send to the ALA Archive) and distributed the agenda. Present: Jim Carmichael, Michelle Cloonan, Gary Colmenar, Don Davis, Jr., Julia Glynn (ALA staff), Gerald Greenberg, David Hovde, Christine Jenkins, Plummer Alston Jones, Jr. , Mary Jo Lynch (ALA staff), Cheryl Knott Malone, Sibyl Moses, Larry Nix, Michael North, Ken Potts, Louise Robbins, Lee Shiflett, Steve Sowards, and Holly Willett. Minutes of the meeting of 31 January 1999 were approved without changes.

2.Report from Mary Jo Lynch, ALA Liaison

Mary Jo Lynch distributed copies of the LHRT "Treasurer's Report - June 1999" reflecting the budget, revenue, and expenditures as of 3/31/99. The fund balance forward appears as $18,212, but $10,000 of this figure were committed to the Winsor Prize Endowment, and another $6,385 were earmarked for the lectureship endowment. The true fund balance was thus $1,827 at the end of March.

Mary Jo Lynch also distributed a memo dated 6/21/99 on appointments to award committees. At Midwinter, the executive committee decided to appoint Dain, Gleason and Davis award committees on the pattern used for the Winsor Prize Committee: the LHRT Chair makes one three-year appointment annually, with the senior member serving as chair. Because the Dain, Gleason and Davis awards don't take place every year, she expressed concern about frustration with appointment to committees that have no work in some years. She proposed that the Chair appoint a Dain committee every other year, and that the Davis and Gleason awards be handled by the Research Committee.

Sibyl Moses (chair-elect) explained that she had gone ahead and appointed a Dain Committee based on the decision at Midwinter. She thought that the committee members had plenty to do even though there would not be an award in 1999-2000. Jim Carmichael noted that there was no work before the committee until submissions arrived on Mary Jo Lynch's desk at ALA and there was some discussion. The group decided to let Sibyl's appointments stand: two of them for two-year terms.

Jim Carmichael also brought forward a suggestion from Mark Tucker, who proposed having a 20-30 year calendar appended to the Handbook, which would remind officers about the years in which awards take place. There was general support for such a calendar. The new Dain and Gleason awards need to be publicized; Sibyl Moses suggested that the Research Committee could take on that job. Moved, seconded and carried to accept Mary Jo's second proposal: "Davis and Gleason: When these are added to the Handbook, responsibility should be assigned to the Research Committee. That will provide the continuity needed for these awards."


a) LHRT officers

Results of the Spring election: as chair-elect, Cheryl Knott Malone; as secretary-treasurer, Holly Willett; as member-at-large (two-year term), Plummer Alston Jones, Jr. These officers assume their duties at the conclusion of this meeting. Charley Seavey's resignation from the publications committee was noted.

b) Programs

LHRT's first program, "Bringing Libraries to the People: Outreach to Groups" took place on Saturday afternoon; the second program, "Bringing Libraries to the People: Innovative Strategies," was scheduled for Monday afternoon.

4. Secretary/Treasurer's report

Steven Sowards distributed a summary of outstanding budget commitments and reported on LHRT's finances. A notable achievement this year is the establishment of the Winsor Endowment: having reached $10,000, this fund can begin to generate funds toward the cost of the Winsor prize.

LHRT is solvent: as previously noted, after deducting money committed to endowment projects, we have a fund balance of more than $1,800. Our annual revenue - primarily from dues - typically amounts to between $4200 and $4600. This is enough to cover basic recurring costs, including the annual Winsor prize ($500), the semi-annual Dain prize ($250), a $500 yearly speaker's honorarium, dues to several organizations, the cost of printing and mailing the newsletter, and overhead paid to ALA for services.

We also have a financial wish-list: substantial commitments or projects that are unique or of limited duration. Foremost among these is the challenge to endow a lectureship by matching up to $7,500 donated by Wayne Wiegand from royalties on his biography of Dewey. Two other projects are a University of Texas Press volume observing LHRT's 50th anniversary, and support for Library Research Seminar II.

To increase revenue, we need to boost membership, share costs with other ALA units (such as dues paid to NCC, the National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History), and/or seek donations through events such as the planned auctions. Steve Sowards will share information about NCC with Holly Willett and Mary Jo Lynch: other parts of ALA, such as History Section, might be willing to share the $420 annual dues because NCC addresses issues of wide interest to historians. Holly will ask Mary Jo about large increases in some projected budget lines, such as Data Processing.

It was moved and carried to spend $250 as a sponsor of Library Research Seminar II.

5. Dain and Winsor Awards

Winner of this year's Dain Prize: Toby Graham. Winner of this year's Winsor Prize: Christine Pawley. Presentations by the award-winners took place at the annual LHRT/LRRT research award program, prior to the executive committee meeting.

6. Davis and Gleason Awards

Sibyl Moses (chair-elect) reported approval of these two new awards by the ALA awards committee. The Davis award goes to the best article on U.S. and Canadian library history, every second year; the Gleason award recognizes the best book in library history, every third year. Neither has a monetary prize at this time. She will determine how soon the first awards should be given.

7. Handbook

Copies of the LHRT Officers Handbook were distributed, with a vote of thanks to Mark Tucker for his work on revising this important tool.

8. Committee reports

a) No report on the logo or brochure.

b) NCC - Steve Sowards noted briefly that this Washington lobby now is monitoring appropriations bills supporting groups like NEA, NEH, and the National Archives. A full report will appear in the Fall Newsletter.

c) No report on the Web site

d) 50th Anniversary of LHRT - Don Davis reported that papers marking the occasion will appear in an enlarged Winter 2000 issue of Libraries and Culture. The cost of a special hard cover publication seems to exceed LHRT's present finances, but he suggested a more modest plan for overprinted copies which institutions could bind as they wish. Adding an index would cost about $500. Rather than ask for funding, Don Davis decided not to ask for funding for the hardcover edition. He asked for opinions about how many copies of the index to print: discussion indicated one hundred.

e) Liaison committee on ALA President Sarah Ann Long's idea for a library museum - Don Davis reported on behalf of the committee (himself, Andrew Wertheimer, Wayne Wiegand, John Y. Cole). John Cole is occupied with plans for the Library of Congress Bicentennial celebration in October, which might lead to a museum.

f)Library History Seminar X - Don Davis distributed a memo from John Y. Cole about plans which incorporate LHS-X into the larger Library of Congress Bicentennial (10/23-26/99). LC is underwriting the costs of this event, and arranging publication of papers. The emphasis will be wider than library history alone, but John Cole's plans focus the first two days on the history of national libraries, and LHRT members are invited to participate fully throughout the event. LHRT previously made a symbolic monetary contribution of $250 at the January 1999 meeting, and LHRT appears on the program as a sponsor. LHS-XI presumably takes place in 2005, but other relevant conferences will take place before then: for example, Christine Jenkins passed out brochures for a September conference on "Evidence and Artifacts: Rethinking Research Methods for LIS History" organized by GSLIS at the University of Illinois.

g) Report on the auction - Michelle Cloonan reported that the auction on Saturday night brought in $950. The group expressed its appreciation for all the work she has done, that done by auctioneer Sid Berger, and that done by Lee Shiflett. David Hovde will write a letter of thanks to Crescent City Books (204 Chartres Street) for providing space, and there will be a notice of recognition for the store in the newsletter.

h) IFLA - Don Davis reported briefly on plans for IFLA, taking place in Bangkok, August 20-29, 1999.

9. Committee assignments and program for 2000

Sibyl Moses, incoming chair for 1999-2000, distributed a preliminary roster of committee appointments and other officers. She proposes to include representatives from the ethnic library associations on the Research and Publications Committees. Her tentative theme for the LHRT program in 2000 is "Libraries, the Preservation of Histories, and the Community:" how communities have contributed to the development of libraries, just as libraries have contributed to the development of communities. Dr. Darlene Clark Hine is the proposed speaker. The tentative theme for the Research Forum is a "Report on the Status of Historical Study of Libraries, Library Pioneers, Reading, and Important Texts Among Ethnic Communities in the United States." Another priority for her presidency will be recruiting: in addition to reaching out to the ethnic library associations, she will recruit by identifying people writing library history whose names do not appear on our membership lists.

The meeting adjourned at 12:40.

Minutes submitted by Steven Sowards

Liaison Reports

National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History (NCC)

Submitted by Steven Sowards

NCC, a Washington-based public interest group that tracks library- and history-related federal government activities, has reported this year on the following issues of interest.

1) Appropriations bills for numerous significant agencies and programs were still making their way through the Congress as of mid-September. These include bills with funding for the National Archives, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC), the National Endowments for the Arts and the Humanities (NEA and NEH, respectively), the Smithsonian, and the National Park Service, all of which support library or archival activities. While appropriations negotiations are an annual contest, there is a new element at work this year: the presence of self-imposed budget "caps" established by Congress in 1997 before anyone anticipated the present federal budget surplus. Applying those caps would lead to substantial cuts for one or several of these programs, at a time when there is no urgent need for fiscal belt-tightening, and there has been some sentiment for increasing funding. Final agreement had not yet been reached between the House and the Senate.

2) Issues of copyright c continue to occupy the attention of Congress. On May 25, the Copyright Office issued a Distance Learning Report, available on the web at http://www.loc.gov/copyright/ by looking under "What's New." Two major bills to safeguard commercial collections of information from misappropriation (so-called "database copyright bills") have attracted the most attention this year. A House committee approved H.R. 354 in May, despite objections that the bill disturbed the balance between vendors and readers. H.R. 1858, which is strongly preferred by the American Library Association, was approved by another House committee in August.

3) Declassification also remains controversial. In the aftermath of alleged security leaks of nuclear secrets to the Chinese, several bills propose to halt or rollback the recent declassification of 600 million pages of documents. At the same time, several lawsuits seek greater declassification of State Department and CIA records, on the grounds that unnecessary secrecy is preventing valid historical research about the Cold War. Cuts in funding for Pentagon declassification activity are the latest factor to slow the release of documents.

NCC's Washington Updates are available online at http://www.h-net.msu.edu/~ncc/ .

LHRT Website Report

By Joy Kingsolver

During the past year, the LHRT site has generated significant interest. Statistics are not available for the entire year; for the week ending June 19, 1999, there were 270 hits, which is pretty typical. The most visited parts of the site, besides the front page, are the bibliographies. There are links to the LHRT site from the Book Arts Information Center, the Grolier Club, SHARP web, and other sites, and I have been contacting additional webmasters and search engines to add links wherever it seems appropriate.

Several LHRT members have contributed comments, links, and information, for which I am very grateful. I issued a call for new links on the H-LIS list in --, and received a few helpful suggestions. I urge members to continue to participate in the site by sending a brief note with good links or suggestions.

As I reported in January, many reference questions come to me because of the site. I always respond briefly to these questions, and if the query is out of our scope, I take the opportunity to suggest a visit to the local library. Again, several LHRT members have helped answer some of the tough questions.

Recently I've been helping get the online newsletter files ready to post. At this writing, Fall 1998 is on the site, and Spring 1999 should be completed by June 27. The format is a little different: there are no page numbers, but there is a table of contents. Bibliographies that are part of the print edition are not included, as they are elsewhere on the site already. Back issues are hosted by the ALA website but are accessed through the LHRT site.

I enjoy working on the LHRT website, and look forward to the coming year. As always, suggestions and comments are welcome.

1999 LHRT Annual Program Summary

Bringing Libraries to the People: Histories of Library Outreach

By Robert S. Freeman, Purdue University

The LHRT Annual Program featured ten papers presented over the course of two sessions in the New Orleans Marriott on Saturday, June 26 and Monday, June 28, 1999. Approximately forty people attended each session. The first session centered on efforts to bring basic library services to socially or geographically isolated populations, while the second focused on innovative strategies of delivering information to "the people."

In "Books Along the Bayous: Reading Materials for Two Centuries of Rural Louisianians," Florence M. Jumonville (U. of New Orleans) surveyed the history of rural libraries in Louisiana. She started with the late 18th century, when there were only a few social and rental libraries, continued through the 1880s, when women's clubs founded community reading rooms, and ended with the 1960s, when public libraries were finally established in all of Louisiana's parishes. The movement to build public libraries in the parishes began with Essae Martha Culver. In 1925 the ALA, the League of Library Commissions, and the Carnegie Corporation sent "Miss Essae" to Louisiana to supervise a cooperative project with Louisiana Library Commission that would demonstrate how a library could be organized so that books would go into every part of a rural parish. When the flood of 1927 jeopardized the progress of Culver's demonstration projects, the Carnegie Corporation extended her funding for two more years. Despite the obstacles presented by Louisiana's bayous and its Francophone and Anglophone cultures, the entire state was "Culverized" by 1969.

Larry Sullivan (John Jay College, CUNY), and Brenda Vogel (Maryland Correctional Education Libraries) characterized prisons and prison libraries as agents of hegemonic power in a provocative paper, "Reachin' Behind Bars: Library Outreach to Prisoners, 1798-1999." They connected the rise and fall of prison libraries in the U.S. to changes in the dominant social philosophies and penal ideologies of officials, politicians, and social reformers. While moral utilitarianism and the Progressive Movement in penology held sway throughout the 19th century, reading and "instruction of the mind" were important means to reforming prisoners. This concept of reform remained paramount until the late 20th century, when the recognition of a prisoner's right to legal information shifted resources away from general libraries to law libraries. Also, the ascendant penal ideology, which emphasized punishment over reform, promoted a policy of "no books allowed." In 1996, following the Supreme Court's Lewis v. Casey decision, several prison law libraries were dispersed, and in early 1999 there was still no prison library (on record) that permitted inmate access to the Internet.

In "A Sovereign Alliance: The American Public Library Community and the American Library Association Committee on Work with the Foreign Born [ALA CWFB], 1918-1948," Plummer Alston Jones (Catawba College) detailed the endeavor of the ALA CWFB and American public libraries toward the Americanization of immigrants following WWI. While nativists and their representatives in Congress clamored for immigration restrictions and would pass the National Origins Act in 1924, many public librarians and the ALA CWFB viewed immigrants as Americans-in-the-making and helped them to learn English and to prepare for naturalization. The first ALA CWFB chairman, John Foster Carr, who was also the founder in 1914 of the Immigrant Publication Society of New York, and the second chairman, Eleanor (Edwards) Ledbetter, made the Committee a national force for the continuing education of librarians in working with immigrants. In 1948 the nation had turned from Americanization to internationalism, and the Committee disbanded. For the whole story see Jones' new book, Libraries, Immigrants, and the American Experience (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999).

Cheryl Knott Malone (UIUC) analyzed the juvenile collections at the "colored branches" of the Nashville and Louisville public libraries in "Books for Black Children: Public Library Collections in Louisville and Nashville, 1915-1925." This topic is part of her wider research on racially segregated library services and collections. Malone remarked that in their schools black children were exposed to the same moralistic and patriotic readers that white children were, but in their libraries' collections they found alternatives to schoolroom texts that both supported and undermined the racial status quo. She observed that non-Southern writers often used unflattering stereotypes. But while some Southern writers, like Thomas Nelson Page, were unrealistic and sentimental about the Old South, others, like Joel Chandler Harris, were quite ambiguous. Listing dozens of writers, Malone revealed that the librarians drew heavily from the Children's Catalog published by the Wilson Co.

Native American tribal libraries, the topic of two presentations, are a relatively recent phenomenon. In her "Historical Overview of Tribal Libraries in the Lower Forty-Eight States," Lotsee Patterson (U. of Oklahoma) recalled that when federal monies were made available in the early 1970s, very few tribes had even attempted to establish libraries. But now, after nearly thirty years, more than 300 tribes have some degree of library services. She concluded that much of the credit for this goes to the passage of federal legislation, not only library legislation, but that which has given tribes more control over their own affairs. Persistent tribal leaders have, in some cases with help of state libraries, sustained and improved these services. Alison Freese and Jean Whitehorse (both New Mexico State Library) began their paper on "Bringing Libraries to Tribes in New Mexico: Current Programs," by praising the efforts of Lotsee Patterson and students from the U. of New Mexico to set up libraries in Pueblo communities in the 1970s. Building on the foundation of these irregularly funded libraries, the New Mexico State Library, with the strong support of Indian legislators, initiated a technology and Internet-oriented project in 1994. By 1997 it had provided computers and training to library staff in 33 communities, 27 of which now have toll-free access to the Internet. These include Pueblos, Navajo sites, and the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apache libraries. The State Library has finally won permanent funding for their Tribal Libraries Program and is expanding library services for the tribes, including the development of tribal archives.

Several of papers focused on efforts that were remarkable more for the proactive and innovative nature of their outreach services than for the specific populations served. For many librarians outreach has meant something more than providing book collections. It has meant generating and promoting information to educate the local populace on socially relevant issues. Barry W. Seaver (Durham County Public Library, NC) reported on one such proactive librarian, Rebecca Browning Rankin, in his paper "The Use of a New Medium, Radio, to Promote the Municipal Reference Library of the City of New York and the Civic Education of Its Citizens, 1928-1938." Municipal reference libraries were created as part of a movement to reform city government in the United States. Part of their mission "was to collect and disseminate information to improve policy decision-making, . . . and to create a politically educated electorate." Rankin, New York's municipal librarian from 1920 to 1952, began using the city-owned radio station, WNYC, to publicize her library in 1928. Over the next decade, she and her staff prepared a number of "popular chats" and "speeches" for series such as "Highlights in Municipal Government" and "What Our Cities Are Doing." Rankin's role in providing information about public policy issues was rare for any woman of that time and especially so for a librarian. Seaver also played a historically fascinating recording of a 1938 Rankin broadcast on "How the Charter Works," which explained the new system of proportional representation to New York City voters.

Toni Samek's (U. of Alberta) paper on "Synergy, 1967-1973: A Pivotal Example in the Evolution of Outreach Library Service," profiled the alternative library title published by the San Francisco Public Library's experimental Bay Area Reference Center (BARC). A typical issue of Synergy listed outstanding additions to the SFPL's reference collection and a bibliography on a topic not covered in the usual publishing channels. Recognizing that San Francisco was a "trend-mecca" that had everything from campus riots to gay liberation, Celeste West, Synergy's first editor, argued that the city was not and would not be reflected in library collections unless somebody pulled together the material from the alternative press. Describing traditional catalogs, indexes and selecting tools as "rear-view mirrors" that did little to meet the public's current information needs, Synergy's staff members trained themselves to learn about and create access to many forms of information. They called upon librarians not only to conserve and organize information, but also to generate and promote it, especially when it related to neglected topics and current issues.

Mainstream commercial publishers have also played an important role in generating and promoting information. Robert S. Freeman and David M. Hovde (both Purdue University) began "The Harper & Brothers Family and School District Library Programs" by highlighting the religious upbringing and ideology of literacy shared by the Harpers, educational reformers, and librarians of the day. Their common background influenced the selection and marketing of the two most popular series of uniformly bound books, or "libraries," in early 19th century America. The Family Library (1830-1842) with 187 non-fiction titles and the School District Library (1838-1846) with 295 titles were often sold in portable wooden cases with built-in shelves. The idea of a publisher's library had come from Scotland and England. By pirating successful English editions and utilizing the latest printing technologies and a far-reaching network of distributors, the Harpers were able to sell thousands of their cheap libraries to middle-class families, churches, libraries, and schools throughout the U.S. and its territories. A Harper library was attractive to Americans, many of whom felt unqualified to judge which were the best books, because its titles were selected by "gentlemen of high literary acquirements and correct taste," who made sure the library contained only works that are interesting, instructive, and "entirely unexceptional in their moral tendency and design."

Gerald S. Greenberg (Ohio State U.) gave an enjoyable slide lecture entitled ". ..' On the Roof of the Library Nearest You': America's Open-Air Libraries, 1905-1944." By bringing book collections to parks, roofs, lawns, and beaches in the early 20th century, librarians were, like the promoters of the open-air school movement, responding to concerns that there was a high risk of spreading communicable diseases when people crowded together in public rooms. Open-air libraries also proved especially attractive to readers during the summer in the years before air conditioning. In describing the methods and designs of these libraries in places such as Boston, New York City, Los Angeles, Honolulu, Mexico City, and Seville, Spain (where there were some beautiful and influential examples), Greenberg proved sensitive to aesthetic aspects of reading outdoors. These libraries attracted a lot of readers in the U.S. during the Great Depression, but after WWII, as modern medicine started to eradicate communicable diseases, and air-conditioning refrigerated public buildings, they closed. Nevertheless, such libraries could still be a valuable outreach service in some nations and environments.

A Grand Event Nets A Grand Amount

By Michele V. Cloonan

LHRT members and friends gathered in the French Quarter at Crescent City Books on June 26, 1999 for our first auction. One hundred books, journals, and ephemera were auctioned by Sidney Berger. Wine, food, an ever festive LHRT membership, the lively auctioneer, and the Crescent City Books resident cat, all contributed to a successful auction. The net of $950.00 is earmarked for the Wayne Wiegand lecture fund.

Special thanks are due to Lee Shiflett, who found the venue, received the items for auction, and prepared the superb handlist; Crescent City Books, for the refreshments; Sidney Berger, for serving as auctioneer, and Lynn Boyden and Nina Schneider from UCLA who collected the money. Finally, thanks to the LHRT members who were so generous in both their donations and their bids.

Library of Congress Bicentennial Symposium, October 23-26, 2000

Entitled "National Libraries of the World: Interpreting the Past, Shaping the Future," this symposium will also be considered as Library History Seminar X and will take advantage of the opportunity afforded by the Library of Congress's Bicentennial in the year 2000 to: 1) examine the roles that national and other large research libraries have played in the past and are likely to play in the future; 2) provide perspective on the current status of the study of the history of libraries; and 3) make a practical contribution to current and future cooperative efforts among national and other large research libraries and library organizations.

The symposium will emphasize discussion, led by co-chairs John Cole (October 23-24) and Winston Tabb (October 25-26), punctuated by brief individual and panel presentations and reactions to those presentations by participants and audience members. Papers prepared for the symposium will be summarized, not read.

For a preliminary outline, please contact John Cole at the Library of Congress. (Ed Goedeken has a copy of the preliminary outline as well).

Awards & Presentations

Carey McWilliams Award

James Danky and Wayne A. Wiegand won the 1999 Carey McWilliams Award, which recognizes an outstanding scholarly or literary work on an aspect of the U.S. experience of cultural diversity given annually by Greenwood Press' Multicultural Review.

Virginia Library History Award

The Virginia Center for the Book and the Library of Virginia Foundation are sponsoring a Virginia Library History Award of $1,000 for an exemplary contribution to the preservation, interpretation, and/or study of the history of libraries in Virginia, broadly defined to include the history of the book, libraries, and librarianship. For more information, please contact Dr. John T. Kneebone, Directory of Publications and Educational Services, Library of Virginia at 804-692-3720 or by e-mail, jkneebon@vsla.edu .

Justin Winsor Prize

The Library History Round Table (LHRT) of the American Library Association (ALA) is accepting submissions for the 2000 Justin Winsor Prize for the best library history essay. The application deadline is February 1, 2000.

The award, named in honor of the distinguished 19th century librarian, historian, and bibliographer who was also ALA's first president, consists of a $500 cash award. It includes an invitation to have the winner's paper considered for publication in Libraries and Culture. The winner will also be invited to present a summary of the paper at the 2000 Annual Conference in Chicago, July 6-12.

Manuscripts submitted should not be previously published, previously submitted for publication, or under consideration for publication or another award. To be considered, essays should embody original historical research on a significant topic in library history, be based on primary sources materials whenever possible, and use good English composition and superior style.

Essays should be organized in a form similar to that of articles published in Libraries and Culture, with footnotes, spelling and punctuation conforming to the latest edition of the Chicago Manual of Style. Papers should not exceed 35 typewritten, double-spaced pages.

Three copies of the manuscript should be submitted. The name and other information identifying the author should appear only on a separate cover letter. Submit manuscripts to Mary Jo Lynch, American Library Association/LHRT, 50 East Huron St., Chicago, IL 60611.

Decisions will be made by LHRT's Justin Winsor Prize Committee chaired by Cheryl Knott Malone of the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science.


Several participants in 1999 LHRT annual program (reported above by Robert Freeman) Florence M. Jumonville, David M. Hovde, Robert S. Freeman, and another LHRT member, Millie Jackson, will be presenting papers at the Reading & Publishing Popular Literature Area of the Popular Culture Association during their joint meeting with the American Culture Association in New Orleans, April 19-22, 2000. For more information about this meeting contact, Alison M. Scott, Popular Culture Library, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, email:ascott@bgnet.bgsu.edu or alisonms@yahoo.com

Call For Papers, Nominations & Authors


The Caspersen School of Graduate Studies at Drew University will host the conference "History of the Book: The Next Generation" on Saturday, 16 September 2000. This conference is open to scholars from all disciplines, but it aims particularly to showcase innovative work by graduate students and newer scholars.

Abstracts (300 words maximum) should be sent by 1 February 2000 to:

Jonathan Rose
Department of History
Drew University
Madison, NJ 07940, USA
or e-mailed to: JEROSE@DREW.EDU

Topics may include (but are not limited to) literacy, the common reader, popular reading, the impact of particular books on culture, textbooks and cultural controversy, libraries, illustrated books, banned books, scroll to codex, the impact of printing technologies, electronic publishing, mass publishing, book design and production, propaganda, newspapers, hoaxes in print, and religious publishing. Potential presenters will be advised if their papers have been selected by 1 March 2000.

Cheryl Malone put forth an interesting call for suggestions to H-LIS subscribers to submit their choices for "best" books and articles on any aspect of LIS history--including memoirs, biographies, and autobiographies--published in the twentieth century. Please include a sentence or two stating why you think the item merits inclusion. Is it a model of argument or method? Does it cover an under-studied topic? Did it change your thinking about an event, institution, or person? How has it stood the test of time? Give her your thoughts on this important topic and send your reply to the H-LIS listserve.

David Stam reports that there remain quite a few unassigned articles for the International Dictionary of Library Histories. For more information on this project, visit its Website at http://www.fitzroydearborn.com/chicago/library.htm. Present schedules call for publication in Spring of 2001. The honorarium for advisers, $100, as well as a complimentary copy of the book will be sent upon publication.


SHARP has issued a call for the creation of an online Bibliography of Book Historical Scholarship. For some time now, we in the Society for the History of Authorship, Reading and Publishing have felt the need for a global, searchable bibliography of book historical scholarship. This should be an on-line bibliography, easily available to all scholars, searchable in several languages, continually updated and corrected. It may never be published in any complete print edition. It should aim at universality, covering the entire field of book history scholarship. Finally, while SHARP is taking the initiative here, this must not be exclusively a SHARP project. It should be a collaborative effort open to all book history and bibliographic societies, working as equal partners. Discussions on this matter will commence at the SHARP meeting in Mainz, Germany this coming summer. Contact Jonathan Rose at jerose@drew.edu for more information on this interesting topic.

News About Library History in the State Associations

Library History News in the South
by Lee Shiflett

Library associations in Texas and Louisiana have authorized the creation of official histories. The Louisiana project is under the general direction of Sue Hill who heads a committee actively engaged in the compilation of a history of the Louisiana Library Association. The History of the Texas Library Association Committee has authorized Keith Swigger and Robert S. Martin to write an official history of the TLA and has authorized funding for reprinting the 1902, 1905, and 1910 editions of the Texas Library Handbook.

The Alabama Library Association maintains a link on its web page to "Alabama Libraries Prior to World War I: A Chronology in Progress" which was compiled by A. J. Wright and is maintained by Donna K. Fitch (http://www.anes.uab.edu/alachron.htm). In 1998, the School of Library and Information Studies at the University of South Florida and the Special Collections Department of the USF Library established a web page with links to historical sketches of Florida libraries (http://www.lib.usf.edu/spccoll/guide/f/flibhist/guide.html) which continues to be maintained by the USF Libraries.

From University of California at Berkeley
by Holly G. Willett

Dr. Frederic J. Mosher, a scholar of the history of books and printing and Professor Emeritus of the (now) School of Information Management and Systems at UC-Berkeley, died May 30, 1999, of a heart attack at the age of 85. At the time of his death, he was continuing to write articles about American printing for the German encyclopedia of the history of the book, Lexikon des Gesamten Buchenwesens. He had arrived at the letter T. A compilation of his articles is planned. Contributions in his memory should be made to the Bancroft Library at UCB. You could contact Mary Kay Duggan at UCB for more information.

Also at UCB, the Library School Oral History Series has been working for a year to interview notable figures in the school's past. Patrick Wilson, Professor and Dean Emeritus, will soon be interviewed. Those who have been interviewed in the past year include Grete FrugT Cubie, the late Frederic J. Mosher, J. Periam Danton, and Flora Elizabeth Reynolds of the class of '36. Laura McCreery will represent the Library School Oral History Series at November's California Library Association meeting during a session entitled "Preserving Your Library's History: Problems and Prospects." Debra L. Hansen of San Jose State will moderate the session which is sponsored by the California Library Association's Library History Roundtable.

North Carolina News
by Plummer Alston Jones, jr.

North Carolina Libraries, the journal of the North Carolina Library Association, is issued quarterly. The Summer 2000 issue will be on the topic of "Preserving Local History." Thomas Kevin B. Cherry and I will be guest editing this issue. Some of the topics to be included are: Managing Photo Collections; Oral History Collections in Public Libraries; Preserving the Archives of Two Historically Black High Schools in Charlotte; Bibliography of Preservation Activities in NC Libraries; and Bibliography of Web Sites Containing Information on Special Collections in NC Libraries.

Also please note that Plummer Alston Jones, Jr. became NCLA President at the close of our 53rd Biennial Conference on 24 September 1999 in Winston-Salem. As Vice President, I was conference committee chair. The theme of our conference was "Imagine the Future," which encouraged library personnel to dream about new technology and services to enrich the lives of citizens in the new millennium. Congratulations Al!

Pamela Spence Richards (1941-1999)

By Donald G. Davis, Jr., Graduate School of Library & Information Science, University of Texas at Austin

My first encounter with Pam Richards was twenty years ago when she proposed a paper for Library History Seminar VI, "Libraries & Culture," that convened in Spring 1980 in Austin. I had begun editing the JLH/L&C three years before and was involved directing the first Seminar under the aegis of the Journal and the Texas LIS school. Her proposed paper dealing with enemy information in wartime seemed an interesting one and I pushed for its acceptance with the steering committee. When I actually met Pam at the Seminar and joined her and others for dinner one evening, I began to realize what a remarkable woman and scholar she was. Her paper was indeed an early step in what would be her special angle on scholarly and scientific communication. This would remain, with some exceptions, her unfolding theme for the next two decades. Taking full advantage of her language gifts and her frequent summer travel in Europe, Pam progressively researched the role of information first in the period of the Second World War and then in the Cold War, making colleagues of many kindred spirits in Western and Eastern Europe. Her published work on these topics was coupled with the boundless spirit she imparted to colleagues, young and old, in her associations. Her recent tenure as chair of the IFLA Round Table on Library History was a crowning recognition of her role in the international profession. As her successor in that position, I am very conscious of the legacy she leaves. The conferences that she planned - "The History of Reading and Libraries in the United States and Russia" (Vologda, Russia, June 1996) and "Books, Libraries, Reading and Publishing in the Cold War" (Paris, June 1998) - drew together a spectrum of scholars from West and East in a fruitful exchange of ideas and intellectual dialogue. I am grateful that they will be preserved in the pages of Libraries & Culture. These experiences will be long remembered by Pam's colleagues, especially those who worked with her on the programs. In addition to her scholarly contributions, I also want to acknowledge the joie de vivre, sense of style and enthusiastic encouragement that she brought to every venture that she touched. Her attractive persona reflected the beauty of her inner character and was infectious. She brought unique luster and respect to the study of library history and to her profession. Alas, I cannot envision her baton passing to another. But her memory will inspire us all for a very long time.

1900 Library Chronology

by Elizabeth Stone

(Stone is a past president of ALA and Dean Emerita of Catholic University of America Library School)

1900 American Library Development

Special and Government

1900 * Reference Library Created for Senate and House of Representatives

On January 8, the House passes a report providing " That the rooms and space recently occupied by the Library of Congress in the Capitol building shall be occupied and used hereafter for the purpose of a reference library for the use of the Senate and House of Representatives, and for that part of the national library known as the Supreme Court Library." [LJ Jan. 1900:25:23]

1900 * Public Service Corporation Library Develops Information Center

Through the farsightedness of the Stone and Webster Company, head librarian, George W. Lee, transformed a miscellany of documents, papers, journals, and reference books into what might be considered a prototype information center. In order to fulfill the needs of an organization concerned with the operation, engineering, and financing and financing of an appropriately 30 public service corporations throughout the United States, Lee stressed the importance of being able to answer promptly practical types of questions. A system was developed in which the monthly issues of Engineering Index were posted on cards and files in alphabetical order. [Kruzas 1969:56-57]

1900 * Appropriations Bill Permits Reorganization of LC

On April 12, Congress passed the Appropriations bill which, while only making provision for the fiscal year July 1,1900-June 30, 1901, practically reorganized service at LC. Five new departments were created: Mail and Supply; Order or Purchasing; Binding; Bibliography; Documents and Exchanges. The salary of Herbert Putman, the Librarian of Congress, was made equal to the sum received by him in Boston-- $6000 per year. [LJ May 1900:233-34] Commenting on these developments, R.R. Bowker editorialized: "Certainly the new century holds fair promise for the Library of Congress, and we may all hope that its development in its wider field may be so guided and safeguarded as to make the library in all respects worthy of its place as the National Library." [Bowker, R. R.:217]

1900 * Putnam Envisions Larger Role for Library of Congress

In the May 12, Outlook, Henry Putnam spoke of the enlarged role he envisioned for the Library of Congress, a theme he developed throughout his administration as Librarian of Congress. He stated it this way: " Now, in comparison with its possible opportunities, the service at present rendered by the Library of Congress is both trivial and narrowŠ The primary duty of the Library of Congress is to Congress. It has a secondary duties: (1) to the Executive Departments and Scientific Bureus in Washington; (2) to scholarship at largeŠ The library is not now rendering ample or efficient services to Congress on the one hand, or to scholarship at large on the other hand. It is rendering effective service as a reference library of the District of Columbia; but such a service scarcely justifies a seven-million-dollar plant, maintained at an expenditure of over a quarter million dollars a year." [Putnam 1900:124]

1900 * Division of Documents Established at the Library of Congress

In keeping with the new law signed by President McKinley on April 17th, creating five new divisions at LC, Librarian of Congress Putnam appointed Dr. Ronald Flakner as Chief of the new Division of Documents. Putnam stated the purpose of this division as follows: " As a legislative Library of Congress should have an every document procurable emanating from any public body, the United States, the states, foreign countries, important municipalities, and also from any organization whose work involves problems of economic interest which may bear upon legislation, constitutions, administration, financeŠ etc." [LJ Oct. 1900:639] Putnam wanted and secured a trained satisfaction for the position. Dr. Falkner had been at the University of Pennsylvania as Associate professor of statistics. After receiving his Ph.B. from Wharton School of Business, he had studied finance and political economy extensively abroad. [LJ Oct.1900:657-58]

1900 * Branch of GPO Established in Library of Congress

The October issue of LJ reported the establishment in the Library of Congress of a branch of Government Printing Office. Work will include binding and rebinding of paperback publications. [LJ Oct.1900:655] In accordance with the instructions of the ALA 1900 Montreal Annual Conference, the LC printing installation will provide printed catalog cards and as "more and more libraries come to rely upon this system for their printed cards, the price can be proportionately reduced." [Bowker, R.R.: 728]

1900 * Library of Congress Seeks to Be Information Bureau for Entire Country&emdash;and for Americana, the Entire World

On November 21, in a paper read to the National Association of Senate Librarians, Librarian of Congress Putnam stated: " The primary duty of the Library of Congress is to render assistance to the deliberations of Congress," but he went on to state: " The Library of Congress is not merely a library for the use of the federal government, it is the National Library of the United States"Š " The state library seeks to act as a bureau of information for the entire state; the Library of Congress for the entire country, and, as to American affairs, for the entire world." [Putnam, H.: 729,731] 0

Academia and School

1900 * Harvard Librarian Lane Suggests Ways to Meet Needs for Increased Space

In the 1899-1900 Annual Report for Harvard University Library, Librarian William C. Lane suggests ways to meet demands for increased space: (1) transfer to special departments all books relating to those departments which would lead to " A well developed departmental library system and would commit the library to am entirely different policy from what it has pursued hitherto"; (2) thinning out by storing away little-used books.[LJ March 1901:160] 1

Public Libraries

1900 * Minnesota State Library Commission Becomes Effective 1st Day of 20th Century

On January 1, the Minnesota State Library Commission became functional with an annual appropriation of $5000, which included a statistical study of Minnesota libraries, which would be used in molding the commission's future plans. [Countryman, G.:580] 2 By September, the commission had purchased 60 traveling librarians and had established a summer library school with an attendance of 16 students. [Countryman. G.: 640] 3

New Jersey Legislature Establishes Public Library Commission

In March, after several years of sitting in the New Jersey legislature, the bill establishing the New Jersey Public Library Commission was finally passed. [LJ April 1900:180] 4 The final passage of the bill was attributed to several members of the New Jersey library Association and the Federation of Women's Clubs. The Bill provided that a five-person commission to be established, and the appropriation of $1500 additional for the traveling libraries provided for by the act of 1898. The Commission was given authority at allocate $100 to any free public library under municipal control, having less than 500 volumes and where the trustees of the particular library would match the amount allocated by the commission for the purchase of books. [Buchanan, H.C.: 171-172]. 5

1900 * Impact of Public Libraries on City Children

In the April issue of LJ, Helen Moore, librarian of the University Settlement of New York reported on the huge impact the library can bring into the lives of children of crowded city districts: " These children depend almost wholly upon what they receive from books for moral and mental stimulusŠ From their teachers in the public schools, from the club associations, and from their books they must often get all they are to know of the good and beauty of life." [Moore, H.: 170] 6

1900 * Iowa Bases Library Commission on Wisconsin Model

Effective on July 1, an Iowa legislative bill established the Iowa State Library Commission, making Iowa one of the "library states." This commission, created under the impetus of the state library association and the state federation of women's clubs, was charged with the general development of the traveling library system, in addition tot he promotion, establishment, and the maintenance of public libraries. The design and functions of the commission were based upon the Wisconsin model. [Bowker, R.R.: 104] 7

1900 * Training program for Children's Librarians at the Pittsburgh P.L.

In the fall a training program for children's librarians was started at the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. The program was designed and implemented with the cooperation at the Allegheny Kindergarten College. The course was planned to cover 2 years of practical work. [LJ July 1950:333] 8

1900 * Information Desk Established at Pratt Institute Free Library

On November 1, an "Information Desk" was established as a regular feature of Pratt Institute Free Library. Winfred L. Taylor, with twelve years of volunteer experience in Freeport, Illinois, was put in charge of this experiment which, after 12 months, the Pratt Institute Annual Report states: " confirmed us fully in our beliefs in the value of an information-desk for the giving not only of information but of help and counsel." [LJ Jan.1902:17] 9

1900 * Gills Appointed California State Librarian

James L. Gillis became State Librarian of California. Under his leadership the county library system of operation became an outstanding success. He prompted county libraries through the California State Library Association of which he was President (1906-1915); started a system for a union catalog for county libraries; campaigned for library extension through larger library units. [Garceau, O.:41] 0

Professional Activities

1900 * ALA Exhibits at Paris Exposition

On April 14, at the opening of the Paris Exposition of 1900, the ALA exhibit was in place in the Social Economy building. Prepared by the New York State Library, the small room,32 by 28 feet, furnished in antique oak, held monographs, pictures, charts, books, and some appliances. A picture of the compact, neat exhibit, with some of the 700 pictures included, was shown the June Library Journal. [Harrison, J.L.: 282-3 +photo] 1

1900 * For First time in History ALA Meets Outside USA

From June 7 to 12, for the first time in its history, the ALA met outside the boundaries of the USA. The Montreal Conference drew over 400 attendees from both sides of the border. An important outcome was the formation of the Canadian Library Association for the province of Ontario. [Bowker, R.R.:3] 2

1900 * Dana Makes Recommendations to Library Schools

On June 7, at the 1st session of the ALA Conference, John Cotton Dana, Chair of the Committee on the Library Schools, called attention to the library school weaknesses and recommended: " That each year the committee makes a report on such library schools and classes as the Association may designate, with special reference to the character of the students who are admitted to the school, the courses of study therein, and the grade of instructors and the character of the instruction." [Dana, J.C.: 86] 3

1900 * A.L.A. Constitution Revised

On June 7th, at the opening session of the A.L.A. annual conference in Montreal, Canada, the revised version of the A.L.A. Constitution (first approved at the 1899 Atlanta A.L.A. conference) [LJ Aug.1899:C143--C145] 4 was adopted and immediately put into effect. Some of the major differences between the 1900 Constitution and the original constitution of 1877 were:

1. The Executive Board became a six-person body;

2. A provision was included in the later document for over-riding the Executive Board by the Association;

3. The Council, consisting of the Executive Board and 25 members elected by the Association, was established;

4. A Publishing Board of five members was established with the responsibility for the preparation and the publication of catalogs, indexes, and other bibliographic and library aids. [LJ Aug. 1900: C115&emdash;C117] 5 The Publishing Board, operating under the new constitution, and stimulated by the high interests shown at the Montreal Conference, completed plans for publishing printed catalog cards with the help of the Librarian of Congress, H. Putnam. [Bowker, R.R.: 4] 6

1900 * ALA President Highlights 10 Years of Library Progress

On June 7, at the 2nd Session of the ALA Conference, President Reuben Gold Thwaites, Secretary and Superintendent of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, reviewed 10 years of American library progress. His view of new developments in public librarianship included: "State library commissions, inter-state, and district associations; library training schools; traveling and branch libraries; traveling pictures; library advertising; children's rooms; rooms for the blind; access to shelves; co-operation with teachers; co-operative cataloging; inter-library loans and exchanges; the general erection of superb library buildings; phenomenal gifts from philanthropists of library buildings and endowments; compensatory library legislation; improves methods of binding and issuing public documentsŠ. For the most part, they are efforts toward popularizing the library; and this is clearly the especial characteristic of our recent professional growth." [Thwaites, R.G.: C-1 7]

1900 * Committee Attempts to Evaluate Employment Standards in Libraries

In September 1900 issue of the Library Journal, the Committee on an Association of Librarians to Maintain the Standards of Work and Wages announced the results of a study surveying the attitudes of librarians toward the establishment of such and organization. A large majority of those surveyed were against " Š an association in which the members agree not to accept a salary less than one determined upon by the association." However, nearly half of the respondents to the questionnaire supported an association that would make " a protest against the present low standard of salaries." As a result of this study the present low standards of salaries." As a result of this study, it was recommended that the American Library Association appoint a committee that would assist qualified librarians in finding employment with only those organizations meeting the standards the committee would have established and that it would inform library school graduates through a circular of these services. [Marot, H.: 587-588] 8

1900 * ALA Section for Library Work with Children Established

On November 2, the Executive Board of ALA, meeting in New York City, voted to establish a Section for Library Work with Children. [LJ Nov. 1900:691] 9

Buildings and Miscellaneous

1900 * A Plea for Delivery in Library Architecture

On March 7, Harry L. Koopman, Librarian of Brown University, made a plea at the Connecticut Library Association against add-on building sections and to uniform sameness of library buildings stating: " Let the library building be made for its own collection, its own public, its own staff, its own site, its own climate." He pleaded for the type of buildings Providence and New York were planning&emdash;"library buildings fearlessly adapted, inwardly and outwardly, to their individual conditions." [Koopman, H.L.: 574] 0

1900 * Carnegie Gives $815,100 to American Libraries

Although Andrew Carnegie's gift in 1900 did not compare with his 1899 phenomenal generosity during the "Carnegie Year" with "the unprecedented record of gifts for libraries and like purposes from one person approximating four million dollars [Bowker, R.R.: 3] 1, his 1900 gifts reached a total of $815,100 distributed among 27 cities and 13 states, and, in addition, permitted attendance of those who were responsible for the ALA exhibit at the Paris Exposition of 1900. [LJ Jan. 1901:21] 2


1 Library Journal. January 1900. 25:23 "Library Economy and History: Washington, D.C. L. of Congress

2 Kruzas, Anthony Thomas. Business and Industrial Libraries in the U.S. 1820-1940. New York:Special Libraries Association, 1969. [See pp. 56-57]

3 Library Journal. May 1900. 25:233-34 "Organization of the Library of Congress, 1900-1901. [See p.233]

4 Bowker, R.R. "Editorials: Reorganization of the Library of Congress." Library Journal. May 1900. 25:217

5 Putnam, Henry. "The Library of Congress." Outlook, May 1900:124

6 Library Journal. October 1900. 25:639 "Division of Documents, Library of Congress."

7 Library Journal. October 1900. 25:657-58 "Librarians: Falker, Ronald P."

8 Library Journal. October 1900. 25:655 "Library Economy and History: Washington, D.C. Library of Congress."

9 Bowker, R.R. "Editorial: Arrangements for Printed Catalog Cards." Library Journal. December 1900. 25:728.

10 Putnam, Herbert. "Relation of State Libraries and the Library of Congress." Library Journal. December 1900.25:729-733. [See pp[.729-731]

11 Library Journal. March 1901. 26:159-160 "Library Economy and History: Harvard University Library (Rpt. 1899-1900." [See p.160.]

12 Countryman, Gratia. " Minnesota State Library Commission." Library Journal. October 1899.24:580.

13 Countryman, Gratia " Minnesota State Library Commission." Library Journal. October 1900. 25:640.

14 Library Journal. March 1900. 25:180 " New Jersey P.L. Commission".

15 Buchanan, H. C. " What New Jersey is Doing for the Public Libraries." Library Journal. April 1900. 25:171-172

16 Moore, Helen. "City Children and the Library." Library Journal. April 1900. 25:170.

17 Bowker, R.R. "Library Progress in Iowa." Library Journal. March 1900. 25:104.

18 Library Journal. July 1900. 25:333 "Training Class for Children's Librarians at Pittsburgh Carnegie Library."

19 Library Journal. January 1902. 27:17-18 " Information-Desk Work at Pratt Institute Free Library." [See p.17]

20 Garceau, Oliver. The Public Library in the Political Process. Washington, D.C.: Columbia University Press, 1949 [See p.41.]

21 Harrison, J.L. "A.L.A. Exhibit at Paris Exposition." Library Journal. January 1901. 25:282-283

22 Bowker, R.R. "Editorail: Library Associations." Library Journal. January 1901. 26.3.

23 Dana, John Cotton. "Report of the Committee on the Library Schools." Library Journal. August 1900. 25:83-86 [See p.86]

24 Library Journal. August 1899. 24:C143&emdash;C145" Committee on Revision of ALA Constitution."

25 Library Journal. August 1900. 25:C115&emdash;C117 "Committee on Revision of ALA Constitution."

26 Bowker, R.R. "Editorial: The Bibliographical Record." Library Journal. January 1901. 26:4

27 Thwaites, Reuben Gold. " Ten Years of American Library Progress: Address of the President." Library Journal. August 1900, 25:C-1--C-7. [See p.C-1] Pages C-1 and C-2 contain charts listing dates State Library Commissions were formed; dates of formation of state library associations; and dates of establishment of various systems of traveling libraries in the USA and Canada.

28 Marot,Helen, Morris,Helen, and Randall Susan. "Report on Work and Wages of Librarians." Library Journal. September 1900. 25:587-588

29 Library Journal. November 1900. 25:691 " A.L.A. Transaction of the Executive Board." [See p.691.]

30 Koopman, H.L. " Individual in Library Work." Library Journal. September 1900. 25:571-574. [See p.574.]

31 Bowker, R.R. "Editorial: "Library Progress in 1899" Library Journal. January 1900. 25:3

32 Library Journal. January 1901. 26

Just In Time For The New Millennium

Barry Moser's Fully Illustrated, Letterpress Bible

By Lenore A. England, MLIS, San Jose State University, Reference and Instruction Librarian, University of Maryland University College

Throughout the history of printing, beginning with the 42-line Mazarin Bible printed by Johann Gutenberg around 1456, the Bible has represented the significant work of many of the fine presses, typographers, book designers, and illustrators throughout the world. The acclaimed bookmaker and illustrator, Barry Moser, follows in this tradition. On October 1, 1999, the Pennyroyal Caxton Bible was released, representing the first illustrated Bible by a single artist since French artist Gustave DorT's edition of the Le Saint Bible in 1865. The result is a version of The King James Bible, a monumental, two-volume, 1,100-page folio edition. Financed by arts patron Bruce Kovner, Moser worked 12 hours a day in his studio in western Massachusetts over the past four years to fulfill his dream of illustrating the Bible.

A person of numerous talents, Moser is a renowned author, printmaker, book designer, illustrator, and lecturer, who has won numerous awards for his work spanning over the past 30 years. He has illustrated, designed, and contributed to approximately 200 books during this period.

Moser's Bible is a work of art of exquisite craftsmanship and wonderful merging of illustrations and text. It is a fine press book; with hand binding, use of archival paper, engraved illustrations, and letterpress printing harking back to traditional methods of bookmaking through the use of technology unchanged for centuries. Printed in both limited and trade editions, the Bible is made available to both fine press book collectors and the general public alike. There are two limited editions, one costing $10,000 for a "regular" edition of 400 copies and a deluxe limited edition of 50 copies printed on custom, handmade paper for $30,000. The trade edition, published by Viking Studio and printed by R.R. Donnelly & Sons for $65, is printed for a broader audience since Moser also wanted to publish this more affordable version of the Bible.

However, even the trade edition is carefully presented: it includes illustrations printed as black-and-white line art, a special sewn binding, a parch tone jacket with gold foil stamping, and is printed on 50-pound Glatfleter paper. While the focus of admiration for Moser's Bible may be on the illustrations, it is a combination of many unique features that make the limited edition of Moser's Bible so distinct. Moser labored on numerous aspects of book's design. The papers chosen were made, some by hand, expressly for the Bible. Imported vellum was used for covers with carefully and beautifully crafted vellum bindings made for the limited editions. Moser, after careful consideration, finally decided on a 13-point Galliard typeface by Matthew Carter, refitted especially for the Bible. He also commissioned a new set of Hebrew letters from Carter. Moser even spent many hours decided on the spacing or "gutter" between the two columns of text on each page, which is so important to the format of many fine press books. The type pages were composed and printed by Bradley Hutchinson of Digital Letterpress. The Bible includes approximately 235 original, engraved illustrations printed in black and white. These images were engraved in a new 3/4-inch white polymer resin called Resingrave, not the more expensive and rare boxwood. Moser prefers to call them "relief engravings"; printed directly from the blocks. Moser's interpretations of the text gave rise to his unique illustrations; he determinedly remained true to the text; however, he presents often dark visions of the Bible. The characters in the Bible are depicted in close-up images, creating an intimate, more down to earth perspective of the text that many people may find unusual. While most of the illustrations are beautiful in the traditional ways that has been presented before in illustrated Bibles, some are hard to view and disturbing, while hauntingly stunning. The illustration of "The Valley of Dry Bones" from Ezekiel shows a long view of numerous human skulls and other bones, endlessly stretching to the mountains beyond. Moser's illustrations presents human errors and foibles, in sometimes raw form, as seen in his illustrations accompanying the text of The Book of Job. Other illustrations do not so closely follow the text; they are also symbolic, interpretive, or metaphorical. The voice of God, "His Voice", is depicted as a waterfall and everything "Under the Sun" is shown as the sun brightly shining through dark clouds.

For those who live in the Washington area or are able to visit, there is currently a National Gallery of Art Library exhibition of Moser's book illustrations and designs. It is a retrospective of his work from 1970 to 1999, and there are 33 books on display, including the Bible. The exhibition will close on January 3, 1999. For further information on the Bible and Moser's other achievements, visit the web site, www.pennyroyal-caxton press.com. As Moser describes in the prospectus for the Bible, it "is a struggle. A struggle to engage not only a sacred text but the greatest monument of our language; to grapple with typography and images befitting such sanctity and monumentality; and to wrestle with the devils and angels that reside therein". Moser does all this and leaves us with a letterpress Bible for the ages, certainly a significant and stunning achievement for his lifetime.

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