Guidelines for Preservation Photocopying of Replacement Pages

This document was first drafted as part of a Research Libraries Group Preservation Committee initiative. It has evolved into the present guideline through the work of the ALA/ALCTS/PLMS Physical Quality and Treatment of Library Materials Committee.

  1. Introduction
    Photocopied replacement pages are required when parts of original texts have been removed or lost. Photocopying also becomes necessary when an embrittled item can no longer be used without risking damage, and a paper copy replacement (rather than film) is desired and is not available from a commercial publisher. In each case, it is essential that photocopies be of the highest quality.

    Interlibrary loan requests for photocopies should indicate whether the copies will be tipped or bound into an existing volume, or will complete an item for microfilming-since the former requires the use of alkaline paper and the latter does not.

  2. Procedures for Making Copies for Tipping-in and Binding
    1. Preservation Photocopying
      1. All preservation photocopies should be made on paper selected for its permanence. It should be acid-free 20- pound bond, and have a minimum alkaline reserve of 2% by dry weight. Suitable papers include Xerox XXV Archival Bond, Howard Permalife, and University Products Perma- Dur. As paper mills in the United States continue to convert from acidic to alkaline manufacturing processes, the availability of alkaline papers can be expected to increase dramatically.
      2. The contrast setting should be adjusted to achieve the highest contrast possible, so that all text and illustrations are captured clearly and any gray cast or streaking in the background is minimized. Photocopies should have consistently dark print quality throughout.
      3. Photocopies must be made on an electrostatic copying machine capable of copying on "plain" paper. The machine must be in good operating condition so that images fuse properly. If a freshly-made copy smudges when an attempt is made to erase the image, the machine is not fusing the image to the paper properly and must be adjusted.
      4. All preservation photocopies for tipping-in or binding should be copied one page per side of a sheet of copy paper, so that copies can be cut to approximately the same size as original pages. Doubled-sided copies should be provided whenever the original is double- sided, unless otherwise specified.
      5. Every page of the original should be aligned consistently, straight and parallel with the edges of the glass platen of the copier. When making double- sided copies, back-to-back images should be in perfect register (that is, margins should match). Because photocopy machines vary greatly in design, it is usually necessary to experiment with the positioning of pages on the platen to determine the best procedure for producing well-registered double-sided copies. A mask on the platen will eliminate dark borders and allow for consistent alignment. Copies should be made so that the recto and verso of the original are also the recto and verso of the photocopy.
      6. When copies will be tipped in, the margin along the left-hand side of the image on the recto must be at least as wide as the left-hand margin on the original, and should in no case be less than 1/4 inch (unless that means that text will be lost along the right-hand side of the page). A minimum left-hand margin of 3/4 inch must be allowed when whole volumes are being photocopied and will be commercially double-fan adhesive bound. A minimum left-hand margin of 1-1/2 inch must be allowed when whole volumes are being photocopied and will be commercially oversewn.
      7. If foldouts are larger than the largest size paper that the photocopy machine can accommodate, they should be copied in sections from left to right and from top to bottom. An overlap of at least one inch should be provided between contiguous sections. Sections should align well so that they may be reassembled into a single sheet. The same binding margin as is described in Section II.A.6 is required.
      8. Each page of the original text should be copied, unless otherwise specified, and kept in the same order as the original. Graffiti, marginalia, and stray marks may be removed before copying when possible. Extraneous material laid in or tipped into the original text should not be copied.

    2. Copying from Reader-Printers
      1. Replacement pages for tipping-in and binding can be made from microforms using reader-printers. Commonly available equipment in libraries can produce images frame-by-frame, and is therefore most suitable for copying a small number of pages. The size of the enlargement lens chosen should be as close as possible to the reduction ratio of the film or fiche, so that copies are as close as possible of the size of the original.
      2. When copying from reader-printers, Sections II.A.2 and II.A.8 apply. Since most equipment requires that paper specified by the manufacturer be used, and because that paper is typically non-archival, it is necessary to re- copy all copies produced from reader-printers before tipping-in or binding them. When recopying, all procedures in Section II.A should be followed.

    3. Copying from Microfilm using Xerox Copyflo and Similar Equipment
      1. The Xerox Copyflo machine can be used to make preservation copies from microfilm. The process prints a roll of paper from a roll of negative microfilm. Alkaline paper as specified in Section II.A.1 is available in rolls. Suitable papers include Howard Permalife and University Products Perma-Dur. The roll of printed paper must be cut into pages and trimmed for binding. Because of cost, it is most feasible to use Copyflo when copying full volumes or full reels of film. When copying, guidelines in Sections II.A.1-3, II.A.6, and II.A.8 should be followed.

    4. Binding Preservation Copies
      1. A preservation copy should be bound following the Library Binding Institute Standard for Library Binding, 8th edition. Double-fan adhesive binding and oversewing are acceptable methods of leaf attachment, provided that the margin requirements cited in Section II.A.6 are met. Unbound volumes should be no more than two inches thick. Those that exceed that limit should be bound in two or more volumes.

  3. Procedures for Making Copies for Preservation Microfilming
    Volumes are collated for completeness as part of the process of preparing them for preservation microfilming. Missing pages are acquired through interlibrary loan and other sources. It is necessary for copies to be of the highest image quality, so that they will reproduce as well as the original pages when the volume is microfilmed.

    1. Photocopying
      1. When producing copies for preservation microfilming, guidelines in Section II.A.2-3, II.A.5, and II.A.7-8 should be followed. Other parts of Section II do not apply since copies will not be permanently retained.