Marketing to Libraries

ALA Library Fact Sheet 5

Companies and products listed in this Fact Sheet are named for informational purposes only. ALA does not endorse specific products or companies. Contact companies directly for further information.

Please be aware that individual libraries are responsible for their own book purchases and collections. There is no one that chooses and distributes books to all libraries -- and that includes ALA.

If what you want to do is donate your books to libraries, please see ALA Library Fact Sheet 12 - Sending Books to Needy Libraries: Book Donation Programs for information on organizations that provide that service. ALA does not does not accept or distribute donations of books or any other materials.

ALA has a review magazine called Booklist (see more details below), which shouldn't be misunderstood to mean that it is a list of books that ALA recommends that libraries get. It is a journal with reviews of books and other materials.

The Library Market in General | What Do Libraries Buy? | How and When Do Libraries Buy? | Reviews | Advertising | Direct Mail/Library Mailing Lists | Authors for Libraries: Connecting Authors & Libraries | Special Note to Self-Published Authors, Authors with Print-on-Demand Books | Review periodicals and services for self-published and print-on-demand titles | Exhibiting/Arrange to Have Your Book Displayed at a Trade Show | Additional Opportunities for Books and Periodicals, Request Partnership with ALA | Selective Bibliography


The Library Market in General

For the big picture on the publishing industry, there is BookStats, a publishing industry statistical survey produced jointly by the Association of American Publishers and the Book Industry Study Group (BISG). The Book Business magazine, a publication of North American Publishing Company (NAPCO), explains that trade publishing refers to general-interest fiction and non-fiction for adults, children and young adults, while a figure for US publishing overall encompasses Trade along with K-12 School, Higher Education and Professional/Scholarly Publishing, in stating that the 2013 BookStats Volume 3 reported Trade publishing had a net revenue of $15.049 billion in 2012, while the overall US publishing industry figure was $27.124 Billion for 2012. BookStats Volume 4 reported Trade publishing generating $14.63 billion in net revenue, while the overall US publishing industry was $27.01 billion in 2013.

Libraries provide a significant market for publishers and vendors. The latest in the federal nation-wide public library survey series, Public Libraries in the United States Survey: Fiscal Year 2011 (2014), of the IMLS Public Libraries in the United States Survey, reported that total collection expenditures were $1.23 billion. Of that amount, 65.4 percent was expended for print materials; 14.3 percent was expended for electronic materials, including e-books, e-serials (including journals), and databases; and 20.4 percent was expended for other materials, including microform, audio, video, DVD, and materials in new formats (see Table 25 on pages 16-17 for full details).

The Library and Book Trade Almanac™ 2014 (formerly The Bowker Annual) includes total acquisitions expenditures for various "categories of expenditure," including books and other print materials, periodicals and serials, AV (audiovisual) equipment and materials, microforms, and electronic reference, for public, academic, special, and government libraries, reported individually for all 50 states (along with regions administered by the USA, including the District of Columbia). The information comes from the American Library DirectoryTM 66th Edition 2013-2014, and includes only those libraries that reported annual acquisition expenditures (1,892 public libraries, 785 academic libraries, 128 special libraries, and 43 government libraries) on pages 395-403. Both titles are published by Information Today, Inc.

For more in-depth library information, see ALA Library Fact Sheet 4 - Library Operating Expenditures: A Selected Annotated Bibliography and ALA Library Fact Sheet 6 - Public Library Use.


What Do Libraries Buy?

Libraries purchase books for adults, young adults, children, and special readers (emerging literates, large print, braille). They also purchase newspapers and magazines, reference sources, scholarly journals, electronic resources (individual and aggregate online databases, computer software, ebooks and ebook readers), audiovisual materials (DVDs and online streaming video, audiobooks and music recordings in various formats including streaming and digital downloads), and microforms (microfilm and microfiche).

Sturdy, better quality books are an important selling point to librarians who are interested in books lasting for more than a few borrowers. Also, books printed on acid-free (alkaline) paper are more desirable because pages printed on acid paper become too brittle to use after 50 to 100 years.

Additional insights can be gleaned from the annual Materials Survey compiled by Library Journal (LJ), a library trade magazine published by Media Source Inc. Latest edition: "Materials Shift," by Barbara Hoffert, from March 4, 2014.


How and When Do Libraries Buy?

Two-thirds to three-quarters of book sales to libraries come from a jobber or distributor or wholesaler (see ALA Library Fact Sheet 9 - Library Products, Services and Consultants for online and print resources which compile names of library vendors, including book jobbers, distributors, and wholesalers). Libraries purchase books through such distributors as Baker & Taylor, Ingram Library Services, Emery-Pratt Company, and other book suppliers and wholesalers.

For e-books, the largest vendor for libraries in purchasing and then circulating ebooks to patrons is OverDrive; Digital Book World reported in December 2013: Six Libraries Reach Over One Million Ebook Checkouts Through OverDrive in 2013. But beyond that, Baker & Taylor provides the Axis 360 digital media circulation platform. Ingram Library Services provides the MyiLibrary online e-content platform. And Emery-Pratt works with MyiLibrary, with EBL (Ebook Library), and ebrary.

Information Today published this article back in October 2013: Who’s Who in Ebooks

Just as books don’t magically appear on library shelves, ebooks don’t automatically pop up in a library’s online catalog. Librarians work with ebook vendors to get econtent into the hands, or rather, onto the e-readers, of their patrons. With the many e-lending options now on the market, here are five of the big ones with a few of their major features for cross comparison.

Most of the balance is bought directly from publishers.

When libraries buy is governed by when their fiscal year begins and ends. Most (but not all) public libraries are on a July-June fiscal year. University, college and school libraries for the most part follow an academic year calendar. A flurry of spending can occur as the end of the fiscal year nears and almost always just after it begins. In general, though, libraries make purchases throughout the year.

See our curated lists of resources, Marketing Books to Libraries and E-Book Readers.

Books are chosen according to the collection development policy of the library, which can call for a title to have been reviewed in an established periodical, such as those listed below.


Reviews

One effective way to get materials into libraries is to have them reviewed. Because they cannot read or use everything they select, many librarians depend upon reviews in the following magazines or journals when making purchasing decisions:

Booklist/Reference Books Bulletin reviews adult books (fiction and nonfiction), books for youth (children and young adults), and reference books and also newly released videos, DVDs, audiobooks, spoken word audios, and children's music CDs. See the Submitting Review Material to Booklist web page for submissions information, including their current policy concerning ebooks.

Choice reviews print and online scholarly works recommended for college and university libraries. See the Choice Submission of Books and Electronic Media for Review (Guidelines for Publishers) web page for more details.


AudioFile reviews unabridged and abridged audiobooks, original audio programs, commentary, and dramatizations in the spoken-word format. See Contact AudioFile for further assistance.

Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books reviews new children's books. See the Bulletin Information for Publishers for further assistance.

The Horn Book Guide and The Horn Book Magazine both review children's and young adult books that are published in the United States. The Horn Book Magazine also reviews audiobooks. Books produced by publishers that are not listed in Literary Market Place are not considered. See Horn Book Submissions for further assistance.

Kirkus Reviews reviews adult fiction and nonfiction, titles for children and teens, and iPad Book Apps. See Kirkus Publisher Services for submission requirements.

Library Journal reviews books, novel-length romance ebooks, graphic novels, zines, audio, video, and e-reviews (online databases) that have the potential to interest a broad spectrum of libraries. See Library Journal Submitting Materials for Review for further assistance.

The New York Times Book Review reviews books published in the United States and available through general-interest bookstores. See The New York Times Books F.A.Q. (Frequently Asked Questions) for further assistance.

Publishers Weekly reviews children's books and also adult books in the following categories: Nonfiction, Fiction, Mystery, Science Fiction/Fantasy/Horror, Poetry, Comics, and Lifestyles (cooking, gardening & home, health & fitness, or parenting). See the Publishers Weekly Submission Guidelines for additional details and mailing addresses.

School Library Journal reviews new children's and young adult general trade books, original paperbacks, and reference books from established publishers. In order to be considered for review, books must be of national interest and be readily available from national distributors at an institutional discount. Also reviewed are videos & audio recordings, and CD-ROMs and online resources. See the School Library Journal Submitting Review Materials for additional details and mailing addresses.

Science Books & Films (SB&F) reviews science-based books, videos, software, and websites for all age groups (K-College, Teachers, and General Audience). See SB&F FAQ/Reviews & Reviewing (at the bottom of the page) for further assistance.

Video Librarian reviews both theatrical and non-theatrical videos/DVDs (including Blu-ray) that are new to the marketplace for public, school, university, and special libraries. See How to Submit Titles for Review in Video Librarian or Video Librarian Online for further assistance.


FOR PUBLISHERS ONLY: See the Submission Guidelines for the Junior Library Guild.


Advertising

Space advertising is available in the American Library Association's most well-known periodicals and corresponding websites and e-newsletters including American Libraries; Booklist; Choice and our other long-running titles for college and university libraries; and in several more ALA periodicals, where indicated. Download the media kit or rate card, or contact the designated advertising representative for details to appear in ALA print and online properties.

New vendors and other companies with library-related services may be a good fit for the online American Libraries Buyers Guide. Those not yet included can create a basic listing for free. For more options, see the Guide Media Kit.


Direct Mail/Library Mailing Lists

Direct mail advertising -- postcards, catalogs, fliers, brochures -- is an effective way to target specific audiences and is useful in providing detailed information and therefore receiving orders for products. Mailing lists for libraries are rented for one time use by a number of organizations and companies, including our American Library Association Mail List Rental. See ALA Library Fact Sheet 3 - Lists of Libraries for other library mailing list and library directory information.

Books that are just sent to libraries without their having been ordered or requested by the library staff are subject to collection development and gift policies. Books not accepted into a library collection can and usually are sold at a book sale or discarded outright.


Authors for Libraries: Connecting Authors & Libraries

The ALA Library maintains a list of resources about library author visits and addressed the topic in the entry, Author Events, in our Ask the ALA Library Blog. However, in 2010, ALA's United for Libraries (A division of ALA) launched a formal program and membership level, Authors for Libraries, described as "a unique partnership to connect authors with libraries, Friends of the Library groups and library Foundations as well as to keep authors informed about issues and concerns affecting libraries on a national level." Authors can join Authors for Libraries for $39 and receive a subscription to The Voice, the newsletter of United for Libraries. In addition, a link to the author's website will be placed on the Authors for Libraries website, where library staff, Friends groups and Foundation staff can search for local authors for library talks and book signings as well as information about forthcoming books and resources for book groups.


Special Note to Self-Published Authors, Authors with Print-on-Demand Books

As noted by Carla King in her March 1, 2010 entry on the PBS Mediashift Blog, Self-Publishing, Author Services Open Floodgates for Writers. For the most current information, see News Reports on Self Publishing.

Please be aware that you may run into difficulty in getting your self-published/print-on-demand book or e-book reviewed and into libraries. See the "vanity press" entry at the Wikipedia online encyclopedia, and especially read the section about libraries.

This may prove confusing, especially if you were able to sell a copy to libraries in your own area. Know that your local public library or libraries may have purchased a copy in a show of support for local authors, something which is usually part of the overall collection development policy. But this will not be the case with other libraries around the country.

For tips and advice on marketing your self-published/print-on-demand book to libraries, see Libraries and Self-Published Books.

Writer Beware has an article on print-on-demand services, pointing out -

Print-on-Demand (POD) Self-Publishing Services

Books from POD services are unlikely to be reviewed in professional venues. Good reviews in major newspapers and magazines, as well as trade journals like Publishers Weekly and Library Journal, can be a boost to an author's credibility, and, sometimes, to sales. But as noted above, reviewers are wary of self-published books - plus, many trade journals will only review in advance of publication, and POD services rarely produce galleys or advance reading copies.

(Both PW and Kirkus have review programs that involve fees paid by the author, but these reviews are published in a separate supplement, and aren't likely to be seen by regular readers. Writer Beware's blog provides a rundown on these and other paid review services.)

The importance of prepublication book reviews is explained by Rachel Toor in the May 11, 2009 Chronicle of Higher Education article, Reading Like a Graduate Student -

It didn't take long, working as an editorial assistant, to learn the importance of prepublication book reviews. I had never thought about it before but soon realized that those reviews are crucial to bookstore buyers when they make decisions about what to stock. Regular news media - newspapers, magazines, radio shows - are not supposed to review a book until after its official publication date, usually about six weeks after the book is scheduled to be available. That allows it to be in the stores by the time the publicity starts.

But before any of that happens, prepublication reviews are key. I was always excited to see early mentions of our books in Publishers Weekly, the trade magazine for the industry, or in Booklist, Library Journal, and Kirkus Reviews.

Concerning other issues with self-publishing, see Bewares, Recommendations & Background Check of the Absolute Write Water Cooler online forum.

Review periodicals and services for self-published and print-on-demand titles include -

Foreword Reviews Magazine has a couple of book review submission options, Foreword Reviews and the Clarion Review fee-for-review service.

Kirkus Reviews has the Kirkus Author Services program.

Library Journal accepts original (i.e., previously unpublished) novel-length romance ebooks for review consideration.

Publishers Weekly (PW) has launched BookLife, a new website dedicated to indie authors, along with the established PW Select service.

Publisher Bowker, a ProQuest affiliate, offers Title Submissions services, including for Self Publishers. See additional resources at Bowker's Self Published Author.com.

See the Self-Publisher's FAQ from the self publishing and independent publishing trade association, the Small Publishers Association of North America (SPAN).


Exhibiting/Arrange to Have Your Book Displayed at a Trade Show

Another way to gain exposure is at professional conferences. Vendor booths or tables at library association conferences are seen by thousands of librarians every year.

Authors who wish to participate in the ALA Annual Conference and/or the ALA Midwinter Meeting should first contact their publishers, as the publishers may already be longtime ALA exhibitors with a booth set up for scheduled author signings and presentations. For authors where this is not the case, information on exhibiting at ALA's national conferences can be found at:
http://exhibitors.ala.org

The ALA Chapter Relations Office compiles the list of State and Regional Chapters (the American Library Association has affiliate relationships with state library associations in all fifty States, the District of Columbia, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and regional library associations in the Mountain Plains, New England, Pacific Northwest, and Southeastern regions) and the Affiliate & Chapter Planning Calendar.

Another option found at the ALA Marketing & Opportunities page is to exhibit at ALA's various division conferences; again, see the he Affiliate & Chapter Planning Calendar.

Should solo exhibiting prove unavailable, consider the services of the book exhibit companies that can arrange to include your book in their display, along with other titles, at library conferences, including the following:

Association Book Exhibit, http://www.bookexhibit.com

Combined Book Exhibit, http://www.combinedbook.com

FYI: Combined Book Exhibit provides the articles, Replacing The Myths About Marketing To Libraries and Tips on Marketing and Selling to Libraries


There are also organizations and companies dedicated to supplying libraries with the books of small presses and independent publishers, which also display books at trade shows, including:

Consortium Book Sales & Distribution, http://www.cbsd.com 

Independent Book Publishers Association, http://www.ibpa-online.org 

Independent Publishers Group, http://www.ipgbook.com

Perseus Books Group, http://www.perseusbooks.com 

Quality Books Inc., http://www.qbibooks.com 

Small Press Distribution, http://www.spdbooks.org


Additional Opportunities for Books and Periodicals, Request Partnership with ALA

Sending advance reading copies (ARC) to libraries directly is recommended.

Many libraries are members of book clubs or monitor club selections. See Book Group Buzz: A Booklist Blog -- Book group tips, reading lists, & lively talk of literary news from the experts at Booklist Online.

Librarians often consult standard reference works such as Books In Print as well as the Magazines for Libraries™ Update and the Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, and it is a good idea to make certain newly-published materials are listed in these sources. Book publishers can register freely with BowkerLINK™ to submit title information to Books in Print. Publishers of periodicals and magazines should contact ProQuest Serials Solutions directly for information on submitting to Magazines for Libraries™ Update and Ulrich's.

To speak with the American Library Association about a project in collaboration with your company, please see Partnership Opportunities and please complete the Request for Collaboration form. Once you have submitted the form, a small administrative team shares your program proposal with the appropriate unit or units. This is the first step to planning a meeting to discuss ways to work together. The ALA Development Office provides information on corporate giving options, including Corporate Support and the ALA Library Champions program.


Selective Bibliography

The following books are currently in print and include information on marketing to libraries specifically:

Abel, Richard E. and Lyman W. Newlin, eds., with Katina Strauch and Bruce Strauch, editors-in-chief. Scholarly Publishing: Books, Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century. Wiley, 2002.

Edelman, Hendrik and Robert P. Holley, eds. Marketing to Libraries for the New Millennium: Librarians, Vendors, and Publishers Review The Landmark Third Industry-Wide Survey of Library Marketing Practices and Trends. Association for Library Collections & Technical Services (ALCTS, a division of ALA) in cooperation with Scarecrow Press, 2002.

Warren, Lissa. The Savvy Author's Guide to Book Publicity: A Comprehensive Resource--From Building the Buzz to Pitching the Press. Carrol & Graf, 2004.


NOTE: Previous versions of this fact sheet can be accessed via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine using the original URL <http://www.ala.org/library/fact5.html>.


Last updated: July 2014


For more information on this or other fact sheets, contact the ALA Library Reference Desk by telephone: 800-545-2433, extension 2153; fax: 312-280-3255; e-mail: library@ala.org; or regular mail: ALA Library, American Library Association, 50 East Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611-2795.