Core Competencies: Banking

core competencies for business reference
Sponsored by the BRASS Education Committee


Maintained by
Garrett Trott
Pennsylvania State University
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Scope | Important Terms | Frequently Asked Questions


The U.S. banking industry is comprised primarily of commercial banks, along with savings banks and savings and loan institutions (also known as "thrifts"), credit unions, and Federal Reserve banks. Identifying and assessing financial institutions, both geographically and by type, and researching interest rates probably constitute the most common and predictable banking information needs of the broadest range of library users. International banking is also referenced here, from a "global" perspective.

Important terms
All definitions are taken from Thomas P. Fitch, Dictionary of Banking Terms, 2nd ed. (Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Series, 1993).

American depositary receipt (ADR) – negotiable certificate issued by a U.S. bank for shares of stock issued by a foreign corporation. The securities are held in a custodial account, either at the issuing bank or an agent. ADRs are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and give the holder the same benefits of ownership as shareholders. ADRs are priced in dollars, and traded on stock exchanges and over-the-counter in the same fashion as U.S. issued securities.

Amortization – the payment of a loan by periodic payments of principal and interest, resulting in a declining principal balance and eventual repayment in full.

Bank holding company – company owning or controlling one or more banks, often identifiable by the word "Bancorp" or "Bancshares" in the corporate name. Companies owning 25% or more of the voting stock in a bank or controlling a majority of its directors are required by the federal Bank Holding Company Act (1956) to register with the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Commercial paper issued by a bank holding company is exempt from reserve requirements and federal deposit insurance premiums.

Central bank – central monetary authority, usually an agency of a national government, that performs a number of key functions: (1) issues the nation’s currency; (2) regulates the supply of credit in the economy; (3) manages the external value of its currency in the foreign exchange markets; (4) holds deposits representing reserves of other banks and other central banks; (5) acts as fiscal agent for the central government, when the government sells new issues of securities to finance its operations; and (6) attempts to maintain an orderly market in these securities by actively participating in the government securities market.

Commercial bank – state bank or national bank, owned by stockholders, that accepts demand deposits, makes commercial and industrial loans, and performs other banking services for the public. The term is synonymous with "full service bank," because many commercial banks supply trust services, foreign exchange, trade financing, and international banking. Commercial bank deposits are issued by the Bank Insurance Fund, a federal insurance fund managed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC).

Cooperative bank – member-owned organization, similar to a mutual savings and loan association, that makes loans and pays interest on pooled deposits. Cooperatives in the United States are credit unions, federal intermediate credit banks, and banks for cooperatives in the farm credit system, and state-chartered savings associations in several New England states.

Credit union – nonprofit savings institution that makes personal loans and offers other consumer banking services to persons sharing a common bond, typically employment at the same firm. Credit unions get their operating funds from shared purchased by individual owners, who are called members, and pay dividends (representing the payment of interest) out of earnings. The National Credit Union Administration, an independent federal agency chartered in 1970, is the primary regulator of national (federally chartered) credit unions.

Demand deposit – account paying funds on demand without notice of intended withdrawal. Also called a checking account. Federal and state banking laws define a demand deposit as any bank deposit payable within 30 days.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) – transfer of funds between accounts by electronic means rather than conventional paper-based payment methods, such as check writing. As defined by the Electronic Fund Transfer Act of 1978, an EFT is any financial transaction originating from a telephone, electronic termninal, computer, or magnetic tape.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) – federal agency that manages the Bank Insurance Fund, insuring deposits in commercial banks, and the Savings Association Insurance Fund, insuring deposits in savings and loan associations, up to $100,000 per account in interest and principal. Federal deposit insurance is mandatory for federally chartered banks and savings institutions.

Federal Reserve note – circulating currency issued by Federal Reserve Banks to meet the public’s seasonal needs for money. Federal Reserve notes are non-interest bearing promissory notes issued in denominations of $1 to $100, and are official legal tender for payment of debts. The notes are liabilities on the books of issuing reserve banks, identifiable by the letter code on the face of the notes.

Federal Reserve System – central banking system in the United States, the “Fed,” established by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 and comprising the 12 district Federal Reserve Banks and their 24 branch offices, the Federal Reserve Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., the Federal Open Market Committee, the Federal Advisory Council, and member banks owning stock in one of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks. The Federal Reserve System regulates the cost and availability of bank credit through monetary policy decisions of the Federal Open Market Committee; sets the discount rate banks pay when borrowing from a Federal Reserve Bank; approves interstate banking mergers; supervises bank holding companies; and oversees international banking operations through agreements with other central banks.

Independent bank – locally owned and operated commercial bank. It derives its sources of funds from, and it lends money to, the community where it operates, and it is not affiliated with a multibank holding company. Also called community bank.

National bank – a financial institution chartered by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Treasury. The OCC supervises national banks and sets operational standards. National Banks can usually be identified because they have the words "national" or "national association" in their titles or the letters N.A. or NT&SA following titles.

Negotiable instrument – written order to pay, such as an acceptance, check, bill of exchange, or promissory note, transferable from one person to another, provided certain conditions are met. When a person cashes a check, he negotiates the check by signing his name on the back and presenting it to a bank, thereby becoming the legal owner of funds represented by the writing on the face of the check.

Net interest spread – the difference in borrowing and lending rates of financial institutions. Banks earn interest on consumer, real estate, commercial and other loans. They pay interest on savings and checking accounts, Certificates of Deposit, money market accounts, and other deposit accounts. Since the primary business of banks consists of receiving deposits and making loans, banks are financially sensitive to interest rates.

Savings and loan association – state or federally chartered financial institution whose primary service is home mortgage lending. Also known as a thrift institution. Savings and loans may be owned by their depositors as mutual institutions or may be investor-owned stock corporations. In the 1980s Congress granted the S&Ls the authority to make consumer loans and commercial loans, issue credit cards, and offer banking services as permitted by banking laws and federal or state regulations.

Savings bank – depository financial institution that accepts consumer deposits and invests its assets primarily in residential mortgages and high-grade securities. Savings banks are found in 16 states mostly in the Northeast, can be owned by depositors as mutual savings banks or stock savings banks issuing common stock to the public.

State bank – a bank that is chartered and supervised by a state. Most state banks offer retail and commercial services.

Thrift institution – savings and loan association or savings bank whose primary function is encouragement of personal savings (thrift) and home buying through mortgage lending. Also known as a savings institution. Credit unions, which are member owned cooperative associations operating under a common affiliation also generally are considered thrift institutions.

See Also:

Banker’s Glossary. American Banker Online. (

Glossary: Terms Related to the Federal Reserve, Banking, and Economics. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. (

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Frequently Asked Questions About Banking

bullet Where can I get more in-depth information about concepts?

Fitzroy Dearborn Encyclopedia of Banking and Finance. 10th ed. (Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1994)

Includes almost 4200 entries providing definitions of basic banking, business, and financial terms. In-depth entries cover historical background, analysis of recent trends, statistical data, citations of applicable laws and regulations, and illustrative examples. First published in 1924.

The New Palgrave Dictionary of Money & Finance. 3 vols. (New York: Stockton Press, 1992)

More than 1000 essays written by over 800 contributors covering theory and doctrine, as well as such empirical issues as institutional analysis and description, monetary history, and problems of financial deregulation. Brief bibliographies and cross references are given for most entries.

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bullet How can I identify banks and related financial services institutions?

FDIC Financial Institutions Directory (

"Provides the latest comprehensive financial and demographic data of every FDIC-insured institution, including the most recent quarterly financial statements, as well as performance and condition ratios."

Mergent/Moody’s Bank and Finance Manual 4 volumes (New York: Mergent FIS, Inc.) (annual)

Volume 1 covers banks, trust companies, savings and loan associations, and federal credit agencies. In terms of sheer numbers of institutions covered, the various Thomson directories (described below) cover many more—but not with Mergent/Moody’s depth of detail. Descriptive, historical, and financial information for some 3,000+ banks, thrifts, and other financial services institutions. The blue pages in the middle of the volume(s) include selected money market rates and quarterly averages (1970 on), list of bonds redeemed, convertible bonds, maturing bonds and notes, bank and finance stock splits, and interim earnings and dividends. Available electronically as a component of Mergent Online (formerly known as FISOnline); see references below in Where Can I Find Financial Statements of Banks? and What About International Banking Information?

Thomson Bank Directory. "5-volume ed." (Skokie, IL: Thomson Financial Pub., 2000- ). (semiannual)

Premier bank directory; provides detailed profiles of banks in the U.S. and more than 210 other countries. Also see category below, What About International Banking Information?

Thomson North American Financial Institutions Directory (Skokie, IL: Thomson Financial Pub., 2000- ) (semiannual)

Single volume coverage of all North America (U.S., Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean). Listings for head offices and branches include financial summaries; major officers’ names; principal correspondent institutions; merger, name change, and closing information; street and mail addresses; ABA routing numbers’ telephone and fax numbers; funds processing data.

U.S. Banks on the Internet (

Search by state, for (1) banks with a Web site, (2) the state’s regulatory agencies for financial services, and (3) state financial services associations.

U.S. Credit Union Directory (National Credit Union Administration) (

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bullet What are the laws and regulations governing banking?

"Banking: An Overview." Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute. (

Concise narrative overview, links to statutes, agency regulations, and judicial decisions (Federal and state); and links to additional key internet resources.

"Banks and Banking." Code of Federal Regulations, Title 12, Parts 1 to 199. (

"Banks and Banking." U.S. Code, Title 12. (

FDIC Law, Regulations, and Regulated Acts (

"Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation." Code of Federal Regulations, Title 12, "Banks and Banking," Chapter III. (
Compilation of Basic Banking Laws Within the Jurisdiction of the Committee on Financial Services: Prepared for the Use of the Committee on Financial Services, U.S. House of Representatives. "Committee Print 107-C." (Washington, DC: U.S.G.P.O., 2001) (

Full text of more than 40 Federal laws pertaining to banking, from 1886 to the present (i.e., as of the 107th Congress, 1st Session).

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bullet Who regulates banks and financial services?

Bank for International Settlements, The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (

The BIS functions as a bank for the central banks of the major industrialized countries, including the United States. Established in 1974, the Committee reports to the Central Bank Governors of the Group of Ten Countries—Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the U.S—plus Switzerland. It has no "formal supranational supervisory authority, and its conclusions do not, and were never intended to, have legal force. Rather, it formulates broad supervisory standards and guidelines and recommends statements of best practice in the expectation that individual authorities will take steps to implement them through detailed arrangements—statutory or otherwise—which are best suited to their own national systems."

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (

The Federal Reserve Board regulates the availability of funds (money supply), maintains a nationwide check-clearing system, regulate private banks, bank holding companies and state-chartered banks that belong to the Federal Reserve System, and issues regulations relating to consumer credit protection.

Conference of State Bank Supervisors (

Links to state banking departments and commissions.

Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, "Administrator of National Banks" (

Charters, regulates, and supervises national banks "to ensure a safe, sound and competitive banking system that supports the citizens, communities and economy of the United States."

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (

FDIC insures deposits, examines and supervises financial institutions.

Federal Housing Finance Board (

"Regulates the 12 FHLBanks [Federal Home Loan Banks] that were created in 1932 to improve the supply of funds to local lenders that, in turn, finance loans for home mortgages."

Office of Thrift Supervision (

OTS is the primary regulator for federal savings banks, federal savings and loans and supervises savings and loan holding corporations.

Securities & Exchange Commission (

The SEC requires public companies, including publicly-traded banks, to disclose specific financial and other information to the public. Banks also engage in securities underwriting and securities brokering, which are activities regulated by the SEC.

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bullet Where can I find banking industry statistics and overviews?

Also see next section, What Information is Available from the Federal Reserve?

Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States [Federal Reserve Bank Release H.8] (

"Provides an aggregate balance sheet for commercial banks in the U.S. and for several subgroups of banks: domestically chartered, large domestic, small domestic, and foreign-related. Balance sheet detail is limited mainly to bank loans and investments; estimates of the major deposit and nondeposit liability terms are provided for each bank group. The release is published weekly."

Bank and Thrift Failure Reports (

This interactive database generates summary and detailed reports, searchable by geography, time period (1934 to current), insurance fund, charter type, and transaction type. It is a component of Statistics on Banking: Historical (see below, this category).

FDIC Quarterly Banking Profile. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (quarterly) (

Its statistical tables, graphs, and written analyses provide the earliest available "financial report card" for the banking industry—all insured commercial banks and savings institutions—within 75 days after the end of each quarter. At the Web site, choose from links to Profile issues (4th quarter 1994 is the earliest available), graph books, or state tables.

2002 Economic Census. Geographic Area Series: Finance and Insurance (

Revenue and employment size of establishments; firm size (revenue, employment, single unit and multiunit, and concentration ratios); and legal form of organization. Summary data for U.S. and state-by-state. Data compiled for 2- through 6-digit NAICS for the Finance and Insurance Sector (NAICS 52)

Standard & Poor’s Industry Surveys. "Banking." and "Savings and Loans." (New York, NY: Standard & Poor’s) (updates are biannual)

Long analyses (30+ pages), including the current environment; industry trends; how the industry operates; and a comparative financial statements analysis. Updated in May and November. Available electronically as a component of S & P’s Net Advantage.

Statistics on Banking. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. (quarterly) (

"Detailed aggregate financial information as well as key structural data (number of institutions and branches) for all FDIC-insured institutions."

Statistics On Banking: Historical. (

Presents aggregated data from individual financial reports filed by FDIC-insured commercial banks and savings institutions. These aggregated data are also available for individual states, U.S. territories and U.S. possessions. Coverage starts with 1934.

Statistics on Depository Institutions. (

Users may select predefined reports or create detailed financial analyses for "any combination of single FDIC-insured institutions or bank holding companies, custom peer groups of FDIC-insured institutions or bank holding companies, or standard peer groups-insured institutions."

Ward's Business Directory. 8 volumes (Thomson Gale)(annual)

Volume 8 offers company rankings by sales within 6-digit NAICS. For example, “52211 Commercial Banking” ranks over 1000 firms. Other volumes provide directory information for each firm.

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bullet What information is available from the Federal Reserve?

Annual Statistical Digest. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (annual; quinquennial)

Convenient compilation of economic and financial "time series" data, as originally published in the Federal Reserve Bulletin. Has suspended publication with 1990-95 compilation.

Fed in Print. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (semi-annual) (

Indexes all economic research published by the Federal Reserve Banks, 1965 to current. The print version has been entirely overtaken by the free Web version (hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco), which has a powerful search engine and, in recent years, links to full text.

Federal Reserve Bulletin. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (monthly) (

Key source of summary economic and financial statistics, such as interest rates, the money supply, flow of funds, and much, much more. Federal Reserve Board research articles are also published. The Web site offers links to selected Bulletin articles, 1997 to current.

FRED II. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. (

Originally known as FRED®, "An Economic Time-Series Database," this is an exceptionally useful, easily searchable and vast repository of historical U.S. economic and financial data. Categories include Interest Rates; Commercial Banking; Exchange Rates; Reserves; and much more. With this "second generation" of FRED®, users can download data in Microsoft Excel and text formats and view charts of data series.

How to File a Consumer Complaint about a Bank (
Selected Periodicals of Federal Reserve Banks

Bank Notes. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. (

Banking Brief. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. (

Banking Legislation and Policy. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. (

Central Banker. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. (

Communities and Banking. Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. (

Economic Policy Review. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. (

Economic Quarterly. Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. (

Economic and Financial Policy Review. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. (

Economic Trends. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. (

The Region. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. (

Western Economic Developments. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. (

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bullet Where can I find tables for interest rates, and similar data?

Financial Compound Interest and Annuity Tables. 6th ed. (Boston: Financial Publishing Company, 1980)

Presents the six standard tables for compound interest work (present and future value of $1)—Amount of 1; Amount of 1 per Period; Sinking Fund, or Periodic Payment which will amount to 1; Present Worth of 1; Present Worth of 1 Per Period; and Partial Payment, or Periodic Payment Worth 1 Today—"for a greater number of rates, and for a greater number of periods than have ever before been published in a single book."

New York Times BanxQuote Banking Center (

"Features daily quotes on online banking, loans and deposits offered by financial institutions in each market. It covers metropolitan, state-by-state, regional and national composite benchmarks for each banking product, as well as useful snapshot profiles of the banking institutions. Benchmark quotes are generally based on the three largest financial institutions in each state, based on asset size and market share."

Thorndike Encyclopedia of Banking and Financial Tables. 4th ed. (Boston: Warren, Gorham, and Lamont, 2002)

"Compilation of tables for use with various fixed income transactions where an interest rate is an integral part of the transaction." The latter includes an amount, an interest rate, a term, and a payment. Values for a range of interest rates and terms are shown for each table; tables are presented in six sections: real estate, mortgage, and depreciation; compound interest and annuity; interest; savings; installment loans, leasing, and rebate; and investment. Updated, and supplemented with new tables, by a Yearbook.

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bullet Where can I find financial statements of banks?

EDGAR Database (

Full text of forms filed electronically with the Securities & Exchange Commission, 1993 to current, by publicly-traded state and national commercial banks, savings institutions, credit unions, or other forms of depository institutions (i.e., those in Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] Major Group 60). Search by company name, EDGAR "Central Index Key" [a unique-to-EDGAR identifier], state, or SIC Code number. Updated daily, Monday-Friday.

FDIC Call Reports and TFRs (

HTML-formatted version of quarterly financial reports which federally-insured banks must submit to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or other federal regulatory agencies. Includes Consolidated Reports of Condition and Income for commercial banks, as well as Thrift Financial Reports for savings banks and related thrift institutions. Search by institution name, city, state, date of report, and/or FDIC or OTS report number. Reports are updated quarterly and date back to early 1998. Co-sponsored by the FDIC, the Office of Thrift Supervision, the Comptroller of the Currency, and the Federal Reserve Board.

FDIC Summary of Deposits (

See above, How Can I Identify Banks and Related Financial Institutions?, entry for Mergent/Moody’s Bank and Finance Manual.

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bullet What about rating banks and S&Ls?

Bank and S&L Quarterly: Ratings and Analysis (Austin, TX: Sheshunoff Information Services) Quarterly.

Popularly known as "Sheshunoff," after its original publisher. Current data on individual banks and savings and loans, including the Sheshunoff® Rating, arranged alphabetically by state, city, and institution name. In another section of each issue, tables and graphs depict national and regional trends in loans, deposits, profits, and more for all U.S. banks and savings and loans.

Weiss Ratings’ Guide to Banks and Thrifts. (Palm Beach Gardens, FL: Weiss Ratings, Inc.) Quarterly.

Uncomplicated, straightforward ratings of the financial safety of more than 10,000 commercial banks, savings banks, and savings and loans throughout the United States, based on publicly accessible Federal Reserve data. Free on the Web: "Strongest and Weakest Banks and Thrifts" (

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bullet What are the major academic and trade journals for banks and banking?

Trade and Professional

ABA Banking Journal (

American Banker (

Bank Marketing (

Credit Union Magazine (

Independent Banker (

Money (

RMA Journal ( rnal/)

U.S. Banker (


Financial Services Review (

Journal of Financial Research (

Journal of Financial Services Research (

Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking (

Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance ( ion)

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bullet How can I find articles in banking periodicals?

ABI/Inform. ProQuest (updated daily).

Premier business bibliographic database of articles published in over 1800 management, finance, marketing, and economics scholarly and "mainstream" trade journals from the U.S. and worldwide, 1971 to the present. Abstracts are provided for all articles, and full-text or image coverage is available for some 60% of the articles published from 1991 forward. The recently-developed ABI/Inform Archive has added full text images for many hundreds of publications, with coverage extending as far back as the 1920s for some titles.

Accounting and Tax Index. Proquest (three quarterly issues with an annual cumulation).

Comprehensive index to English-language books and journal articles on accounting and related fields (auditing, financial management, and the financial services industry). More than 1000 publications worldwide are indexed by subject and by author (either personal or corporate). Print version provides indexing only, no abstracts. Online offers abstracts, selected full text, and images).

Banking Information Index. Proquest (updated monthly)

Subject index to current periodical articles on banking trends, topics, issues, and operations. Approximately 200 banking periodicals are indexed with abstracts, selected full text and images.

Business Periodicals Index. H.W. Wilson Co. (monthly, except August, with annual cumulation)

Oldest of all subject indexes for business (preceded by the Industrial Arts Index, 1918/19-1957), BPI thoroughly indexes over 500 scholarly and trade business titles, as well as the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times business section. Articles are also indexed by company name. Abstracts are not published in the print version. Available electronically: Wilson Business Abstracts and Wilson Business Full Text (online and CD-ROM).

Business Source Premier. EBSCO Publishing (updated daily)

Major ABI/Inform "rival" covers more than 4,000 U.S. and international business periodicals. Cumulative indexing and abstracting is provided for more than 4,300 titles, and cumulative full text for more than 3,400. Many full-text backfiles start as far back as 1965; some are decades older than that. Approximately 400 titles in banking and finance are covered; most are presented in full text or full image formats. "Sibling" Business Source Elite covers some 1,770 journals.

Fed in Print. Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (semi-annual)
( tions/fedinprint/index.html)

See above, What Information is Available from the Federal Reserve?

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bullet What are the professional associations/organizations related to the banking industry, and how can I contact them?

American Bankers Association. 1120 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036. (202) 663-5000. (

The premier banking trade association in the United States.

Bank Administration Institute. One North Franklin, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60606-3421. (312) 683-2464. (

"Devoted exclusively to improving the performance of financial services companies and individuals through research, information, education and training."

Consumer Bankers Association. 1000 Wilson Blvd., Suite 2500, Arlington, VA 22209-3912. (703) 276-1750. (

"The recognized voice on retail banking issues in the nation’s capital."

Independent Community Bankers of America. One Thomas Circle NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005. (202) 659-8111. (

"The only national trade association dedicated to community banks."

Mortgage Bankers Association of America. 1919 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20006. (202) 557-2700 (

"The only association devoted exclusively to real estate finance."

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bullet What about international banking information?

Bank for International Settlements (

"The BIS is an international organisation which fosters cooperation among central banks and other agencies in pursuit of monetary and financial stability." The Federal Reserve Bank of the U.S. is a member. The BIS Web site includes an extensive section of full text "Publications and Statistics."

Central Banks Online (

New York University School of Law’s Center for the Study of Central Banks is responsible for this metasite. Coverage includes Central bank statutes; basic banking laws; political constitutions; unpublished working papers and related materials; conference papers from the Center; published works; and annual reports.

Mergent Online. Mergent, Inc. (updated daily)

For financial, historical, and directory-style information for international banks, do an "Advanced Search" of the category "Industry Codes," subcategory "Any NAIC" that "starts with" the digits 5211, 5221 or 52311, limited to "International Universe," or “International Archive.”

Structure and Share Data for U.S. Offices of Foreign Banks (

Quarterly Federal Reserve Board report on the assets, loans, and deposits of all foreign bank offices in the United States, and, separately, those of California and New York.

Bank Directory. "5-volume ed." (Skokie, IL: Accuity, 2006- ). (semiannual)

Two of the 5 volumes provide detailed listings for banks in more than 210 countries outside the United States. Volume 5, The Worldwide Correspondents Guide, contains information banks use to effect funds transfers and other international communications.

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Last updated 05/01/09
Originally created by Michael Oppenheim, University of California at Los Angeles
Previously maintained by: Kerry Wu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;
Kevin Harwell, Pennsylvania State University

Sponsored by the BRASS Education Committee