Library Research and Statistics

Note: This article is posted with permission from The Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2005, published by Information Today, Inc., 143 Old Marlton Pike, Medford, NJ 08055-8750. Copyright Information Today, Inc.

Research and Statistics on Libraries and Librarianship in 2004

Denise M. Davis, Director
Office for Research and Statistics
American Library Association

The times are changing, but many things remain surprisingly the same.

Surveys of libraries of all types show similar results--funding is "strained," staffing figures are flat, library "use" is rising, materials acquisition costs continue to rise, and materials acquisitions (in counts) are flat. We know that public libraries have been struggling with the question of filtering on public and staff computers, with decisions by governing boards determining whether a library receives federal funding for many technology-related purchases and services. We also know that school librarians and their support staff have lost jobs because of economic downturns, may not be rehired, or may be replaced with volunteers--this despite research that correlates student performance with the presence of a library and professional staffing.

Achievements and Concerns

Digital Virtual Reference

Digital virtual reference (VR) projects have sprouted all over the country and are no longer limited to larger libraries, cooperatives, or statewide initiatives. Effective analysis is being conducted at state libraries, by statewide VR programs, and by research libraries. Early figures indicate very high levels of accuracy in reference interactions. The results of evaluation and assessment of VR are expected to appear more prominently in the literature in 2005.

Journal Pricing

Academic libraries continue to feel the journal-pricing pinch and unlikely voices are being heard on this topic--from the editorial boards of scientific journals. The resignation of the entire editorial board of the Journal of Algorithms on December 31, 2003, was reported by both the Chronicle of Higher Education and Library Journal. In late January 2004 a proposal to create a new journal on algorithms was approved by the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) Publications Board.

The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) highlighted in its ARL Bimonthly Report 234 (June 2004) that serials prices continue to rise. In an article titled "Serials Trends Reflected in the ARL Statistics 2002-03," Martha Kyrillidou, director of ARL's Statistics and Measurment Program, reported that serials unit costs had increased 215 percent over the previous 17 years (full data are available in ARL Statistics 2002-03). It was further reported in ARL Bimonthly Report 235 (August 2004) that its members spent, on average, 26 percent of materials budgets on electronic collections in 2001-2002 and that electronic journals represented 92 percent of that expenditure. ARL further reported that journal pricing increased for its members by 712 percent between 1994 and 2002. It very likely will not be long before this proportion increases as humanities titles go the way of science, technology, and medicine titles. Total expenditures on library materials represented 40 percent of total operating budgets in 2002-2003 for ARL libraries.

LIS Study

Library and information science (LIS) programs throughout the country continue to grow. Many LIS deans have reported record enrollment in the master's-level programs, in large part a result of distance education. But although enrollment figures are rising, it is not entirely clear whether the graduates are finding employment in libraries. A work force study funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) will be conducted under the direction of José-Marie Griffiths, dean of the School of Information and Library Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. This is a two-year research study on the future of librarians in the work force and began in fall 2004.

Publication Delays

Research relevant--even critical--to decision making and planning continues to be delayed years before publication, leaving us wondering about other mechanisms for getting this valuable information out to the library community. The American Library Association (ALA) has reported publication delays of as much as two years; scholarly publications cite even longer gaps. Thomas Nisonger, of the Indiana University School of Library and Information Science, has revised the study on LIS deans' and ARL directors' perception of library journals and found that delays in publication have affected perceptions. Some groups are investigating leveraging institutes, conferences, and other public forums more effectively as venues for presenting research findings and compensing for the publication delays. Unfortunately, if these forums do not publish their proceedings, the attempt may not result in a solution to the publication-pipeline clogs.

Deaths During 2004

The library research community saw the loss of many in 2004. Among the most notable were Anne Grodzins Lipow and William A. Katz. Lipow, who died September 9, was founder and director of Library Solutions Institute and Press and a long-time trainer and advocate of innovative reference techniques including digital virtual reference. For more information about her contributions, visit Katz, who died September 12, was retired from the faculty of the School of Information Science and Policy, State University of New York at Albany. He is best known for his books on reference sources and services, including the two-volume Introduction to Reference Work. For more information, visit

Research Relevant to All Libraries

Colorado Staff Study

One of the more significant studies to be completed in 2004 was "Retirement, Retention, and Recruitment: The Future of Librarianship in Colorado" by Nicolle Steffen, Keith Curry Lance, Becky Russell, and Zeth Lietzau of the Library Research Service (LRS), Colorado Department of Education (September 2004). The study was sponsored by the Management and Administration Division of the Colorado Association of Libraries (MADCAL) and funded by the Colorado State Library. Of the estimated 4,520 people employed by Colorado's academic, public, and school libraries, 1,159 (26 percent) responded to the survey. The study revealed that of the 1,241 total respondents to the survey (including special library respondents), 216, or 17 percent, indicated that they plan to retire in the next five years. Nearly three quarters (71 percent ) of librarians who reported planning to retire within five years were 55 or older. Remaining librarian retirees were between 45 and 54 (29 percent) and none were younger than 45. Of these, 47 percent were in school libraries. This study provides a wealth of information about why individuals did not pursue credentialed library careers, whether a poor economy has affected career plans, and many other factors. Not surprising was that 66 percent of those responding indicated that low salaries kept them from pursuing an MLS degree. [See "Retirement, Retention, and Recruitment: The Future of Librarianship in Colorado" later in Part 4-- Ed.]

The Colorado study findings are similar to those of Mary Jo Lynch, Stephen Tordella, and Thomas Godfrey in their report "Retirement and Recruitment: A Deeper Look" ( America Libraries, January 2005; available at This report updates a March 2002 study analyzing the profession using the 2000 census as the base and looking at occupational groups. Findings show that the ten-year period beginning in 2010 will see 45 percent of today's librarians reach age 65--the early wave of "baby boomer" librarians. This study also confirms the Colorado finding that many librarians come to the profession as a second career choice.

Salary Survey

ALA continues its annual salary survey. The survey is a random stratified sample of university, college, two-year academic, and public libraries throughout the United States. All public libraries serving populations of 500,000 or more are included each year. The 2004 findings show a modest increase (2.3 percent) in mean salaries across all libraries sampled; the national average was 2.5 percent. Salaries reported ranged from a low of $13,878 to a high of $241,280, with a mean of $52,188 and a median of $48,792. The most significant improvement was for beginning librarians, with an increase of 7.5 percent over salaries reported in 2003. More information about the study is available at Supplemental questions about position titles were also included in the 2004 survey and will be used to develop and conduct a support staff salary survey in 2005. ALA will administer the 2005 surveys of professional and support staff for the Office on Research and the ALA Allied Professional Association.

Florida Studies 'Taxpayer Return'

The State Library and Archives of Florida undertook a year-long study resulting in the report Taxpayer Return on Investment in Florida Public Libraries: Summary Report September 2004. The project director was José-Marie Griffiths. Its purposes included understanding individual libraries' economic impact compared with that of other types of organizations. The project used standard models of economic values, notably the model developed by Regional Economic Models and the Contingent Valuation Method. Some interesting findings from the study:

  • Every dollar invested in public libraries yielded a return of $6.54 to the economy.
  • The economic benefit of public libraries to individuals ranged from $7.10 for recreational use of the library to $143.86 for work-related use.
  • The educational contribution of public libraries was valued at $2.1 billion.

Additional information about the project and a copy of the final report are available at

CLIR Eyes Nonsubscription Periodicals

The Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) released a study in June by Eileen Fenton, Donald W. King, Ann Okerson, and Roger C. Schonfeld titled "The Nonsubscription Side of Periodicals: Changes in Library Operations and Costs Between Print and Electronic Formats." Although it focuses on research and academic libraries, the study is invaluable in understanding the life-cycle costs to an organization as well as expenditures for a dual-format collection and the costs associated with managing the transition away from subscription-based collections. The research team surveyed 11 academic libraries--four small, three medium, and four large--during the first half of 2003 and recommend formulas for determining life-cycle values for print and electronic titles. The report is available for purchase, and can be accesssed online at

Aca demic Libraries

The academic library research agenda seemed to be less focused in 2004 than in the previous year. The three most significant areas of research were funding and expenditures, electronic services, and marketing.

ACRL Studies Library PR

ALA's Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) released Marketing and Public Relations Practices in College Libraries, compiled by Anita Rothwell Lindsay and issued as CLIP Note No. 34. The book summarizes the results of a marketing and public relations survey with responses from more than 175 college libraries. The survey determined that although 52.5 percent of responding academic libraries agreed that fulfilling part of their mission included marketing and public relations activities, only 4.1 percent had formal marketing plans or strategies. In fact, 66.4 percent of respondents did not plan to develop a marketing plan or other formal policies to coordinate marketing and public relations activities. The findings further indicate that for those libraries developing marketing materials and so forth, the majority of staff assigned to these activities had no prior experience in the area, nor had they been trained in communications, marketing, or public relations. The report includes samples of marketing and public relations materials to assist libraries in planning efforts, as well as a selected bibliography. More information about the report is at

ARL Upgrades Survey

ARL decided to include questions on electronic resources metrics and emerging digital library operations in the supplement of its base survey beginning in July 2004. This is the first "universe" survey--one that surveys all possible respondents--to formally incorporate electronic metrics. Although the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has introduced electronic metrics into its surveys of public, state, and academic libraries, reporting those data has been problematic. More information about this change is available at

ARL Reports

The ARL Office of Leadership and Management Services published two notable SPEC Kits in 2004. The first was SPEC Kit 280, Library User Surveys by Tom Diamond, head of Reference Services at Louisiana State University. ARL members completed the survey on library user surveys, reporting on current activities and updating Elaine Brekke's 1994 findings published in SPEC Kit 205, User Surveys in ARL Libraries. With 54 percent of members responding, the current data indicate that Web-based forms are the predominant method for administering surveys. "The responding libraries confirmed that the survey data was highly valuable for meeting the top three survey goals of assessing library service strengths and weaknesses, assessing user perceptions, and assessing the access of library services and resources." The results clearly link marketing value and issues of customer awareness of library services.

The second was SPEC Kit 282, Managing Electronic Resources by Vicki Grahame, head of the Catalog Department at the University of California-Irvine. Released in August, the report focuses on organizational and staffing issues. The survey gathered information about staff training, processing activities, and use of committees or teams to manage electronic resources. Of the 123 ARL member libraries responding, 87 percent reported making personnel or organizational changes to accommodate processing and management of electronic resources, especially in the area of cross-functional personnel changes. For more information about these and other ARL SPEC Kits, go to

Following on the early work on LibQual+ and performance measures, ARL noted in ARL Bimonthly Report 236 (October 2004) that LibQual+ reported a record number of libraries and consortia participating and that more than 112,000 individuals responded. More than 550 libraries in seven countries have used the tool since the pilot project began in 2000. For more information, see In addition, ARL will launch an interactive data analysis tool for LibQual+ data. This tool will add further value to the data collected by ARL member libraries by providing a mechanism for creating categories for analysis.

NCES Academic Libraries Survey

The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has launched its third interactive Web-based survey of 3,700 U.S. academic libraries. The academic library survey began in 1966, was part of the Integrated Postsecondary Education System (IPEDS) until 2000, and occurs biennially in even-numbered years. The survey collected several new items in 2004, including the question "Is the library collection entirely electronic?" as well as seeking more specific information about electronic reference sources and aggregation services. It also added a new section on information literacy. NCES continues to experience delays in getting reported data back out to the library community. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) instituted new requirements that have delayed the release of the 2002 final data and report. In addition, NCES has new standards that add another layer of review before final data and reports can be released. The good news is that data are released to the Peer Tools as soon after submission and preliminary editing as possible.

Public Libraries

NCLIS Analysis

One of the more valuable, and critical, accomplishments of 2004 was the release by Robert E. Molyneux, director, Statistics and Surveys, at the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS) of comparative data files from the NCES Federal State Cooperative System for Public Library Data (FSCS). Public Libraries in the United States, a Statistical Portrait analyzed data sets from 1987 to 2001 and ranked states against 20 characteristics for the period 1991-2001. These data were first released to the NCLIS Web site in fall 2004 and followed by an article in the January 2005 issue American Libraries. To review the data files and ranking tables, see

Deep Web

Kathleen R. Murray and William E. Moen report on deep Web searching improvements and apply them to the Library of Texas project. Their article, The Deep Web: Resource Discovery in the Library of Texas, appeared in the spring 2004 issue of Texas Library Journal (80(1):16-24). The concept of data mining, or deep searching, is not new to the library information field. What is noteworthy of Moen's work is the application of deep Web searching analysis within a meta search tool and a controlled multitype content environment of freely accessible Web resources and commercial aggregated content. Of particular interest in this research is the use of Web log analysis to understand user behavior while in a meta search tool.

E-Metrics Help

Florida State University's Information Use Management and Policy Institute is again at the forefront of electronic measures, more commonly referred to as e-metrics. This time it is with a National Leadership Grant from IMLS to develop an E-Metrics Instructional System (EMIS), a Web-based, interactive instructional system designed to help librarians understand selected e-metrics, how to collect these e-metrics, and how to use these e-metrics for decision making and communication purposes (especially to external stakeholder groups). The step-by-step training modules include a "how-to" section and a range of e-metrics such as virtual reference and user training. Of special note is an interactive annual report tool developed by a consultant to the project, Joe Ryan. John Carlo Bertot and Charles R. McClure direct the project. Additional information is available at

GIS-Aided Research

Geographic Information Systems (GISs) continue to be employed by public libraries to analyze service areas. JaNae Kinikin of Weber State University reported on a study completed for Weber County (Utah) Library System in an article titled "Applying Geographic Information Systems to the Weber County Library System" ( Information Technology and Libraries, September 2004). Kinikin studied current patron use of library branches and demographic characteristics of income and ethnicity. The study revealed that a majority (61 percent ) of Weber County Library System patrons resided within a three-mile radius of a branch. Although some registered borrowers could not be plotted because of such factors as having a post office box address, the study helped library staff understand patron income and ethnicity so that collections and services could be more accurately targeted by branch.

Gates Foundation Studies

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation continues its work to improve access to technology in public libraries and to assess the impact of its philanthropy. Among the studies released in 2004 was a report titled Toward Equality of Access: The Role of Public Libraries in Addressing the Digital Divide. The report found that public libraries have helped narrow the digital divide by providing free public access to computers and the Internet, and that there continue to be disparities in Internet use. Reported in this study were data from the U.S. Department of Commerce from 2002 noting disparities by race, age, and income level. The report provides a useful overview of the policy issues, pulling together information from a variety of studies. The report is available at

The Gates Foundation also launched an impact study with the Information Use Management and Policy Institute at Florida State University to look at status and impact of public access computers in public libraries. The award was to support two national surveys, in 2004 and 2006, of public libraries' use of technology, in providing network-based services and resources, and ability to affect their communities through technology and network-based services and resources. ALA's Washington Office is also supporting the study. More information is available at

ULC Studies Revenue, Governance

The Urban Libraries Council (ULC) released a study titled "Governance and Revenue Structures: New Field Data on Metropolitan Public Libraries." Among the findings were that more libraries experienced increases in general operating revenues in 2002-2003 than did not, and that local funding continued to be the primary source of revenue for public libraries. And, as the economy declined in many areas of the country, ULC members reported exploration of new revenue sources including "entrepreneurial ventures such as bookstores, coffee shops, and event space leasing." Library foundations continued to play a significant role in fund raising. The report is available at

School Libraries

AASL Study on Media Specialists

Issues concerning closing of school media centers have long been a focus of research for the American Association of School Librarians (AASL). In the 2004 edition of School Library Media Research, an online refereed journal of AASL, a study done by Donna Shannon, associate professor and coordinator, School Media Program, University of South Carolina School of Library and Information Science in Columbia, presents valuable information about the importance of curriculum for school librarians and media specialists, and discusses employment opportunities for students graduating with a specialization in school librarianship. The study, "Preparation of School Library Media Specialists in the United States," surveyed accredited and nonaccredited programs in six areas: schools, program(s), and faculty; student enrollment; certification requirements; internship requirements; distance education; and recruitment. Shannon reported that there were 48 accredited and 151 nonaccredited programs at the time of the study (1999-2000), and that three of the accredited programs planned to close at the end of the 1999-2000 academic year. Not surprisingly, distance education was viewed as a highly significant method for encouraging study of school librarianship. The study findings show that only 65 of the 117 responding institutions reported offering any form of distance education in this curriculum area. The article is available online at

NCES High School Survey

NCES has been involved in a longitudinal study to monitor the transitions of a national sample of high school students as they progress from 10th to 12th grades and eventually to the work world. The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) will obtain information not just from students and their school records, but also from students' parents, their teachers, their librarians, and the administrators of their schools. For the first time, libraries and their use by students is being studied as part of a longitudinal study. Findings about the library studies of 10th graders have been published as an E.D. Tab, School Library Media Centers: Selected Results from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) (NCES 2005-302), available at More information about ELS:2002, including the study questionnaires, is available at Additional information about NCES longitudinal studies is available in an article published in Education Statistics Quarterly, "Studying Education as a Lifelong Process," in 2000. The article is available at

Technology in Education

Technology in education was the featured topic of the summer 2004 issue of Education Statistics Quarterly. Articles included "Computer and Internet Use by Children and Adolescents in 2001" by Matthew DeBell and Chris Chapman, "Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2002" by Anne Kleiner and Laurie Lewis, "Participation in Technology-Based Postcompulsory Education" by Lisa Hudson and Linda Shafer, and "Invited Commentary: Children, Schools, Computers, and the Internet: The Impact of Continued Investment in Educational Technology Under NCLB" by Susan Patrick, director, Office of Educational Technology, U.S. Department of Education. The issue is online at

Other Research Benefiting the Profession

Report on Digital Reference

R. David Lankes, in his article "The Digital Reference Research Agenda" ( Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55(4) [2004]), focuses on the output of a symposium held at Harvard in August 2002 to present a research agenda for the study of digital reference. Digital reference is defined in this agenda as ". . . the use of human intermediation to answer questions in a digital environment." The agenda questions digital reference in six areas: digital libraries, information retrieval, reference and library science, computer mediated communication, systems theory, and education. Lankes asks a further question regarding the role of human expertise in an information-systems environment to respond to patron inquiries. The result is a nicely developed research inquiry model. The article also is available on Lankes's Web site at

Networked Reference Standard

The National Information Standards Organization (NISO) continues its work to develop a Networked Reference Standard. Sally H. McCallum of the Library of Congress chairs NISO Standards Committee AZ. For more information about the work of this committee, visit

Search and Retrieve Web (SRW) and Metadata

William E. Moen, University of North Texas School of Library and Information Sciences, has written extensively in the areas of metadata analysis, the application of Z39.50 standard in a search and retrieval Web environment, and generally about Z39.50. The following is a sampling of Moen's work: "A Web Services Approach to Search and Retrieve: The Next Generation Z39.50," "Metadata Interaction, Integration, and Interoperability," and "The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative: Cross-Domain Resource Description and Resource Discovery." Each his presentations is available online at

Digital Collections

NISO and IMLS released a revision of A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. IMLS transferred maintenance of the framework to NISO in September 2003; the update represents the work of NISO's advisory group formed to contribute to the document's further development. The framework outlines high-level principles for identifying and organizing digital resources. It includes guidelines relating to quality and provides a list of supporting resources. A copy of the revised framework is available at

IMLS began a second technology and digitization survey of libraries and museums. The first study formed the baseline data set, and the second survey's goals include updating the data set and identifying information on developments and trends since 2001. The second study should produce a report in 2005. The baseline study is available online at

Library Statistics Standard Revision

ANSI/NISO Z39.7-2004, "Information Services and Use: Metrics and Statistics for Libraries and Information Providers--Data Dictionary" was approved in October 2004. Z39.7 is an interactive Web-based utility for identifying standard definitions, methods, and practices relevant to library statistics activities in the United States. Like the previous editions of Z39.7, the aim of the standard remains to assist librarians and researchers (now defined as "the information community") by indicating and defining useful, quantifiable information to measure the resources and performance of libraries and to provide a body of valid and comparable data on American libraries. A maintenance agency had not been identified for the standard at the time of this report. The standard is available online at


Project COUNTER (Counting Online Usage of Networked Electronic Resources) released a revision to its code of practice in April 2004 and plans code development for e-books and e-reference works. The changes to the code include a more comprehensive list of definitions and terms used, a clarification of the definition for number of successful full-text requests in HTML and PDF, a consolidation of protocols for recording intermediary aggregator or gateway usage to a table, and a new appendix for auditing standards and procedures for vendors and publishers. Discussion of "turnaways"--rejected sessions or unsuccessful log-ins--continued Additional information about COUNTER is available at

Awards and Grants that Honor and Support Excellent Research

The professional library associations offer many awards and grants to recognize and encourage research. The 2004 awards and grants here are listed under the name of the sponsoring association, and in the case of ALA by the awarding division, in alphabetical order. More-detailed information about the prizes and prizewinners can be found at the association Web sites.

The Mary Jo Lynch Award for Library and Information (LIS) Students, a new award to honor the contributions of long-time ALA Office for Research and Statistics Director Mary Jo Lynch, will be given in 2005. The award--intended to encourage library school student statistical research using public library data collected at the state and national level--is sponsored by ALA, NCES, NCLIS, and FSCS. The award will be announced at the FSCS Annual Conference held each December.

American Library Association
Carroll Preston Baber Research Grant
Winner: Amanda Spink, University of Pittsburgh, for "Multitasking Information Behavior by Public Library Users."
Jesse H. Shera Award for Excellence in Published Research
Winners: Jeffrey D. Kushkowski, Kathy A. Parsons, and William H. Wiese for "Master's and Doctoral Thesis Citations: Analysis and Trends of a Longitudinal Study," portal: Libraries and the Academy, 3 (3): 459-479, 2003.

American Association of School Librarians (AASL)
AASL/Highsmith Research Grant
Winners: Robyn Young for "More than Just Comics: Graphic Novels and Their Effect on Student Achievement," and Kathy Latrobe and Rhonda Taylor for "Survey of LMS's Attributes for Ongoing Program Assessment."

Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL)
Doctoral Dissertation Fellowship
Winner: Judy Jeng for "Usability of Digital Library: An Evaluation Model."

Samuel Lazerow Fellowship for Research in Collections and Technical Services in Academic and Research Libraries
Winners: Karen M. Letarte and Jacqueline P. Samples for "Looking at FRBR Through Users' Eyes: Toward Improved Catalog Displays for Electronic Serials."

Coutts Nijhoff International West European Specialist Study Grant
Winner: Helene S. Baumann for translation from German to English of the subject thesaurus of the Pictorial Archive of the German Colonial Society (Bildarchiv der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft).

IS Publication Award
Winners: Esther Stampfer Grassian and Joan Kaplowitz for Information Literacy Instruction: Theory and Practice (Information Literacy Sourcebooks, 2001), and Ann J. Grafstein for "A Discipline-Based Approach to Information Literacy" ( Journal of Academic Librarianship, July 2002).

Library and Information Technology Association/OCLC
Frederick G. Kilgour Award for Research in Library and Information Technology
Winner: Carl Lagoze.

American Society for Information Science and Technology
ASIS&T Research Award
Winner: Boyd Rayward.

ASIS&T ProQuest Doctoral Dissertation Award
Winner: Lennart Björneborn.

ASIS&T/ISI Doctoral Dissertation Proposal Scholarship
Winner: Meng Yang.

ISI/ Citation Analysis Research Grant
Winner: David Hubbard.

John Wiley & Sons Best JASIST Paper Award
Winner: Cecilia Brown for "The Role of Electronic Preprints in Chemical Communication: Analysis of Citation, Usage, and Acceptance in the Journal Literature."

ASIS&T Best Information Science Book
Winners: Charles Bourne and Trudi Bellardo Hahn for A History of Online Information Services 1963-1976 (MIT Press).

Association for Library and Information Science Education
Eugene Garfield/ALISE Doctoral Dissertation Award
Winners: Samuel E. Trosow for "Information for Society: Towards a Critical Theory of Intellectual Property Policy," Kalpana Shankar for "Scientists, Records, and the Practical Politics of Infrastructure."
Research Grant Award
Winners: Cathy M. Perley and Rebecca Miller for "Performance Characteristics Required of Information Professionals Working in Competitive Business Environments."

Medical Library Association
Donald A. B. Lindberg Research Fellowship
Winner: Timothy B. Patrick for "Evidence-Based Information Retrieval in Bioinformatics." Patrick is assistant professor of health informatics, Health Management and Informatics, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, and the second individual to receive this research fellowship. Focusing on post-genomic medicine, the research project will address the crucial need for evidence-based medicine to ensure high-quality healthcare, thus furthering understanding of the information retrieval partnership between health sciences information professionals and bioinformatics researchers.

President's Award
Winners: Martha Fishel and Betsy Humphreys, in recognition of their work in transferring MLA's scholarly publication, the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association ( BMLA), now known as the Journal of the Medical Library Association ( JMLA), into digital format from 1911.

Ida and George Eliot Prize
Winners: Eileen Abels, Keith Cogdill, and Lisl Zach for "The Contributions of Library and Information Services to Hospitals and Academic Health Sciences Centers: A Preliminary Taxonomy."