Direct and indirect economic benefits of public libraries
An economic analysis model on the circular flow of economic activity involving libraries looks at indirect demand and measures economic spin-offs. Taking into account both direct and indirect impacts, in 1993/1994 Ontario public libraries contributed $486 million to the GDP. The direct and indirect impact in terms of jobs reached more than 9.000 in 1993/1994. Government direct and indirect revenues generated by public library activity in Ontario, calculated from direct and indirect taxes, duties, and from the sale of cultural goods and services are estimated to generate almost $38 million in revenue to various levels of government (22).