Standardized Handling of Digital Resources: An Annotated Bibliography

2. Transport

The interest in digital resources owes much to their flexibility. They are often far easier (cheaper and quicker) to transport than their non-electronic equivalents. The current explosive interest in the World Wide Web can be credited in part to the underlying structure of the Internet, and the ease of access to remote resources that is provided, rather than the inherent benefits of HTML-encoded documents. Without electronic networks, electronic documents' usefulness is vastly reduced. The following section provides a list of resources discussing current and contemplated standards for the transport of digital resources.    

2.1 Transport Layer    

2.1.1 Ethernet

Madron, T. W. (1989). LANs, applications of IEEE/ANSI 802 standards. New York: Wiley.
An introduction to local area networks, with particular attention paid to network standards, including OSI.
McNamara, J. E. (with John Romkey) (1996). Local area networks: an introduction to the technology. Boston: Digital Press.
A general introduction to all aspects of local area networks (including Ethernet), including discussions of supporting multiple protocol campus local area networks.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 6 (1996). ISO/IEC 8802-3:1996: Information technology -- Telecommunications and information exchange between systems -- Local and metropolitan area networks -- Specific requirements -- Part 3: carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specifications. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
The international standard for Ethernet networks, ISBN 1-55937-049-1.
Spurgeon, C. (1997, May 6). Access to Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) Information [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://wwwhost.ots.utexas.edu/ethernet
A very complete listing of resources for understanding Ethernet local area network technology and its various incarnations. Includes Quick Reference Guides, Frequently Asked Question files, papers and reports, pointers to free Ethernet software, and of crucial importance to Ethernet administrators, access to the various troubleshooting numbers essential for diagnosing problems on Ethernets.    

2.1.2 Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)

Dempsey, L. (1992). Libraries, networks, and OSI: a review with a report on North American developments. Westport, CT: Meckler in assoc. with the U.K. Office for Library Networking.
A well-researched discussion of OSI and its influence on library systems both in the U.S. and the U.K. It includes an overview of OSI and of specific protocols used within the OSI framework, discussions of the Linked Systems Project and the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Protocol, and a discussion of Z39.50, as well as examinations of libraries and research networks, the development of local, library online systems, and of automation systems serving groups of libraries. A good overview of OSI and its present and potential impact on library systems. It includes a bibliography and a summary of relevant standards.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1994). ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994 Information Technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Basic Reference Model: The basic model. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
The international standard which defines a framework for the interconnection of networked computers. The intent is to specify a set of standards which will allow autonomous computer systems to communicate. Much of what OSI defines is similar to what is defined in the TCP/IP networking standard.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1989). ISO/IEC 7498-2:1989 Information processing systems -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Basic Reference Model -- Part 2: Security architecture. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
This standard defines the security-related elements of the OSI Basic Reference Model, and provides a framework for the protection of communication between pairs of OSI entities.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1997). ISO/IEC 7498-3:1997 Information technology -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Basic Reference Model: Naming and addressing. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
Describes the architectural principles which should be followed in the creation of any standard for the identification and location of objects for the purpose of interconnection within the OSI environment.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1989). ISO/IEC 7498-4:1989 Information processing systems -- Open Systems Interconnection -- Basic Reference Model -- Part 4: Management framework. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
Describes a protocol for managing resources within an OSI environment, delineating both the communication mechanism between managers and agents, and the types of management information which may be exchanged.
Piscitello, D. M., & Chapin, A. L. (1993). Open systems networking : TCP/IP and OSI: Addison-Wesley professional computing series. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
A feature by feature comparison of the two different networking standards, with discussion of the evolution of the two standards.    

>2.1.3 Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

Bowers, K., LaQuey, T., Reynolds, J., Roubicek, K., Stahl, M., & Yuan, A. (1990, August). FYI on where to start: A bibliography of internetworking information: Request for comments 1175 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://rs.internic.net/nic-support/fyi/fyi3.html
An annotated bibliography on TCP/IP internetworking, prepared by the User Services Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force. It includes references to several articles and books which are focused on introducing TCP/IP networks in academic and library settings.
Bradner, S., & Mankin, A. (1995, January). The recommendation for the IP Next Generation Protocol : Request for comments 1752 [On-line]. Available on the Internet: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc1752.txt
The initial Request for Comments on the IP Next Generation Protocol (aka IPv6). The basic technical specifications for where TCP/IP networking will be heading over the next several years.
Comer, Douglas E. (1995). Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, protocols, and architecture (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
This book provides an overview and introduction to TCP/IP and reviews underlying network technologies. It also contains several useful appendices, including RFCs, a glossary of Internet terms, and the official DARPA Internet protocols.
Feit, S. (1997). TCP/IP: Architecture, protocols, and implementation with IPv6 and IP security (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
WORK AWAITING REVIEW.
Hedrick, C. L. (1987). Introduction to the Internet protocols [On-line]. NJ: Computer Science Facilities Group, Rutgers University. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.cprm.net/fog/ip-intro
A basic introduction to TCP/IP networks, available in many locations on the Slightly dated, but still a very good, readable introduction to TCP/IP and its functions.
Hinden, R. (1997, April 5). IP Next Generation (IPng) [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/ipng-main.html
Provides various documents relating to the development of the IPv6 protocol, including a good overview document at http://playground.sun.com/pub/ipng/html/INET-IPng-Paper.html
Huitema, C. (1996). IPv6: The new Internet protocol. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
An excellent overview of IPv6, covering both the technical and political aspects of its development and implementation. This book includes sections on IPv6's design, routing and addressing issues, plug & play aspects of IPv6, security, real time communication support, and the practical aspects of transitioning from the current Internet protocols to IPv6. The book has many suggestions for further readings, as well as a glossary and index.
Huitema, C. (1995). Routing in the Internet. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
This book makes an excellent attempt to cover all aspects of modern Internet routing in 320 pages, including interior routing protocols such as RIP, OSPF, and IS-IS, external routing protocols such as EGP, BGP, and CIDR, and the routing aspects of more novel Internet applications such as multicasting, mobile computing, and reserving network resources. As might be expected given the scope, many of the subjects are not explored in great depth, and the attempt to cover so much ground in so little space makes the book a bit of a dense read. However, if you want to understand the basics of Internet routing, this book covers it all and does it very well.
Hunt, C. (1992). TCP/IP network administration. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly & Associates.
One of O'Reilly & Associates well-known and respected guide books, this book provides a complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network, including configuring network applications, troubleshooting, and security issues. An essential book for those managing TCP/IP networks in libraries.
Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (1981, September). Internet Protocol: DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification: Request for comments 791 [On-line]. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Processing Techniques Office. Available on the Internet: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc791.txt
The Request for Comments describing the Internet Protocol used over much of the Internet.
Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (1981, September). Transmission Control Protocol: DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification: Request for comments 793 [On-line]. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Processing Techniques Office. Available on the Internet: ftp://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc793.txt
The Request for Comments describing the Transmission Control Protocol.
Piscitello, D. M., & Chapin, A. L. (1993). Open systems networking : TCP/IP and OSI: Addison-Wesley professional computing series. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
A feature by feature comparison of the two different networking standards, with discussion of the evolution of the two standards.    

2.2 Transmission Protocols    

2.2.1 Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)

Appelbaum, R., Cline, M., & Girou, M. (1996). The CORBA FAQ: Frequently asked questions [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.cerfnet.com/~mpcline/corba-faq/index.html
A discussion of the CORBA standard which addresses some basic issues such as why you would want to use distributed computing, distributed objects, and the CORBA standard in particular. The FAQ also addresses the issues of what exactly the basic CORBA architecture is, and the relative advantages of CORBA and the DCOM model from Microsoft. While the FAQ is intended for applications developers, much of it is useful for non-technicians interested in learning more about CORBA.
CORBA and OMG information resources: The Object Management Group's Common Object Request Broker Architecture (OMG/CORBA) (1997, April 15) [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.acl.lanl.gov/CORBA
A comprehensive WWW page on CORBA, including pointers to CORBA documents and specifications, articles and papers regarding CORBA, companies developing CORBA implementations and tools, sample code, pages discussing non-CORBA based distributed computing systems, and conferences and workshops.
Object Management Group, Inc. (1996). The Common Object Request Broker: Architecture and specification: Revision 2.0, July 1995, updated July 1996 [On-line]. Framingham, MA: Object Management Group, Inc. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.omg.org/pub/docs/formal/97-02-25.ps [PostScript Format] or ftp://ftp.omg.org/pub/docs/formal/97-02-25.pdf [Portable Document Format]
The specification of a standard which allows programming objects to transparently make requests and receive responses, as defined by OMG's Object Request Broker (ORB). The ORB provides interoperability between applications on different machines in heterogeneous distributed network environments and interconnects multiple object systems.
Object Management Group, Inc. (1997). A discussion of the object management architecture [On-line]. Framingham, MA: Object Management Group, Inc. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.omg.org/library/oma/omatitle.ps,
http://www.omg.org/library/oma/omatoc.ps,
http://www.omg.org /library/oma/chp1.ps,
http://www.omg.org /library/oma/chp2.ps,
http://www.omg.org /library/oma/chp3.ps,
http://www.omg.org /library/oma/chp4.ps, and
http://www.omg.org /library/oma/glos.ps
An overview of both the Object Management Group and its role in the network computing industry, as well as of the reasoning behind CORBA. A good, non-technical introduction, although one which is very heavily oriented towards the commercial sector.
Orfali, R., & Harkey, D. (1995, April). Client/server with distributed objects. Byte 20(4), 151.
An introduction to CORBA and programming in the CORBA environment. A good, basic introduction to CORBA for programmers.    

2.2.2 Distributed Component Object Model/OLE (DCOM/OLE)

Microsoft's efforts to produce a system for the development and deployment of distributed objects in a networked environment has gone through a variety of name changes over the past several years. Those seeking further information on this topic will need to include resources discussing the Component Object Model (COM), the Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM), OLE (which previously stood for Object Linking and Embedding but now is simply a name, not an acronym), and ActiveX in their search.

Brown, N., & Kindel, C. (1996, November). Distributed Component Object Model Protocol -- DCOM/1.0: INTERNET-DRAFT [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.internic.net/internet-drafts/draft-brown-dcom-v1-spec-01.txt
The Internet Draft for the Distributed Component Object Model Protocol, Microsoft's specification for an application-level protocol for object-oriented remote procedure calls for use in a distributed network environment.
Chappell, D. (1996). Understanding ActiveX and OLE. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.
Microsoft Press's overview of ActiveX, COM, and OLE technologies, explaining the relations between the three and how they can be combined to develop distributed, object-oriented technologies.
Microsoft Corp., & Digital Equipment Corp. (1995). The Component Object Model Specification: Draft Version 0.9, October 24, 1995 [On-line]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corp. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.microsoft.com/oledev/olecom/title.htm
The draft specification for Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM), an object-oriented programming model which supports Microsoft's DCOM protocol. Combined with ActiveX, COM and DCOM provide Microsoft's model for distributed object programming in a client/server environment.
Mowbray, T. J. (1994, Nov.-Dec.). Choosing between OLE/COM and CORBA. Object Magazine 4(7), 39-40, 42, 44, 46.
A comparison of the proprietary OLE/COM technology and the standard CORBA technology for development of network applications. See also the CORBA page from LANL above for various papers comparing OLE/COM with CORBA (as well as other architectures).    

2.2.3 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., & Frystyk, H. (1996, May). Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.0: Request for comments 1945 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/rfc1945.txt
An informational RFC that describes the common usage of the HTTP protocol (the use of which predates this RFC by six years).
Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., & Berners-Lee, T. (1997, January). Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1 : Request for comments 2068 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.ics.uci.edu/pub/ietf/http/rfc2068.txt as well as at http://www.internic.net/rfc/rfc2068.txt
The official standard for HTTP v. 1.1.
Nielsen, H. F., & Gettys, J. (1997, June 6). Hypertext Transfer Protocol overview [On-line]. Cambridge, MA: World Wide Web Consortium. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.w3.org/pub/WWW/Protocols/Overview.html
The World Wide Web Consortium's overview page of WWW resources relating to HTTP. Much of the information provided is fairly technical, but extremely current. This page also contains information regarding software development tools for creation of HTTP systems.
Randall, N. (1996, Oct. 22). What happens when you click: HTTP: The underlying protocol of the World Wide Web. PC Magazine, 15(18), 245.
A good, short, non-technical overview of how the Hypertext Transfer Protocol operates, including features which are not generally used on the WWW such as 'Put' and 'Delete.'    

2.2.4 Information Retrieval: Z39.50

Center for Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval (1996, October 28). Information retrieval at CNIDR [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.cnidr.org/ir/ir.html
This site provides links to CNIDR's freely-available software packages, including their Isite information system, which provides a Z39.50-compliant Internet publishing system, with a full text indexing/search system (Isearch) included.
Denenberg, R., Kunze, J., & Lynch, D. (1996, November). Uniform Resource Locators for Z39.50: Request for comments 2056 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://ds.internic.net/rfc/rfc2056.txt as well as at ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/defs/url.txt
This RFC describes a means for specifying the establishment of two different forms of Z39.50 information retrieval sessions (either an ongoing, interactive session or a single, specific retrieval requests) within a Uniform Resource Locator adhering to the conventions established with Uniform Resource Locators (URL): Request for Comments 1738 (December 1994).
Index Data (1997, May 29). Software to download. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.indexdata.dk/download.html
Index Data is a software development and consulting firm in Denmark specializing in information management and retrieval applications. They have made a variety of their software available for public use at this WWW site, including the Zebra server (a free-text indexing and retrieval system, including a Z39.50 server), IrTcl (an extension to the Tcl/Tk programming language to enable rapid development of platform independent Z39.50 client software), and YAZ (a Z39.50 Version 3 compliant software development toolkit).
Joy, F., & Murray, R. (1995, June). The World-Wide Web and Z39.50: which way for libraries? VINE, 99, 38-43.
Discusses the differences between the HTTP and Z39.50 protocols, and the resulting necessity to support both within networked library settings.
Kelly, M. (1997, May 4). Internet searching with Z39.50 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.markkelly.com/z3950
An extensive and relatively current WWW page covering the Z39.50 information retrieval protocol, including pointers to general information regarding the standard, to Z39.50 search engines available via the WWW, to sites where Z39.50 software may be downloaded, discussions of the international scope of Z39.50, Z39.50's relation to other standards, and sources for further information. A good complement to the Z39.50 Maintenance Agency WWW site, and especially valuable for those seeking information about current implementations of Z39.50 software, or about use of Z39.50 in an international context.
Lynch, C. (1997, April). The Z39.50 information retrieval standard: Part I: A strategic view of its past, present and future. D-Lib Magazine [On-line serial, ISSN 1082-9873]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april97/04lynch.html
This paper provides an overview of both the historical development of the Z39.50 protocol and the protocol's functions. It discusses some of the different visions of the protocol's development, with particular emphasis on issues of interoperability and content semantics. A good introduction to the socio-technical history of Z39.50's development, and what this may mean for the future of the standard.
Lynch, C. (1994, December). Using the Z39.50 information retrieval protocol in the Internet environment: Request for comments 1729 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.internic.net/rfc/rfc1729.txt
A brief discussion of an approach for implementing Z39.50 in a TCP/IP network environment. While based on the 1992 version of the Z39.50 standard, the information provided is still relevant for more recent versions of the Z39.50 standard.
Michael, J. J., & Hinnebusch, M. (1995). From A to Z39.50: a networking primer. Westport: Mecklermedia.
An overview of the major points of existing networking technology, primarily aimed at librarians and other information professionals who are inexperienced with networks and their development. While some of the information has become a bit dated (as have the exhortations for librarians to become infonauts), it still provides good coverage of the relevant standards. Unfortunately, it does not contain a bibliography.
National Information Standards Organization (1995). Information retrieval (Z39.50): Application service definition and protocol specification: Approved May 10, 1995 by the American National Standards Institute [On-line]. Bethesda, MD: Niso Press. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/official/part1.txt,
ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/official/part2.txt,
ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/official/part3.txt, and
ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/official/part4.txt
"Z39.50 specifies a client/server protocol for information retrieval. It specifies procedures and structures for a client to search a database provided by a server, retrieve database records identified by a search, scan a term list, and sort a result set" (From the Z39.50 abstract). At the moment, Z39.50 is one of the more widely used client/server protocols for information retrieval used in library catalog systems. Further information regarding development of the protocol may be found through the Maintenance Agency (Library of Congress) WWW page at: http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/. The Maintenance Agency also has a bibliography regarding Z39.50 available at: http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/papers/biblio.html. The ISBN for the Z39.50 protocol specification is 1-880124-22-X and the ISSN is 1041-5653.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (1997, June 11). FirstSearch via Z39.50 configuration guide: Freely reusable software [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.oclc.org/oclc/man/z39.50/config.htm#api
OCLC has made both its client API and BER utilities publicly available for those wishing to implement Z39.50 client software. This site provides links to obtain the necessary software code, as well as documentation on the code and a link to an article by Ralph LeVan on how to build a Z39.50 client.
St. Pierre, M. (1995). Z39.50 for full-text search and retrieval [On-line]. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/articles/margaret.pdf or ftp://ftp.loc.gov/pub/z3950/articles/margaret.ps
A good, introductory article delineating the author's experiences with establishing a Z39.50 version 3 client/server system. This paper is included in a publication from NIST, Z39.50 Implementation Experiences, edited by Paul Over et al., Gaithersburg, MD: U.S. Dept. Of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1995. Series Title: NIST special publication 500-229.    

2.2.5 Structured Query Language (SQL)

Hare, K. W. (1997). SQL standards home page [On-line]. Granville, OH: JCC Consulting, Inc. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.jcc.com/sql_stnd.html
A page intended to be a central source of information regarding the SQL standards process and its current state. Includes information on obtaining the standards as well as pointers to books and articles discussing it.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1992). ISO/IEC 9075:1992: Information Technology -- Database Languages -- SQL. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
The formal SQL definition as internationally accepted. The essentially identical ANSI version of this standard has the title ANSI X3.135-1992, "Database Language SQL."
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1995). ISO/IEC 9075-3:1995: Information Technology -- Database Languages -- SQL -- Part 3: Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
Definition of a programming, call level interface to SQL databases. It provides for an implementation independent CLI to access SQL databases, and hence a richer set of client/server tools for providing access to such databases.
International Organization for Standardization, Joint Technical Committee 1 / Subcommittee 21 (1996). ISO/IEC 9075-4:1996 Information Technology -- Database languages -- SQL -- Part 4: Persistent Stored Modules (SQL/PSM). Geneva: International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC).
An extension to SQL which provides for procedural language extensions, multi-statement and stored procedures, and external function and procedure calls.
Melton, J., & Simon, A. R. (1993). Understanding the new SQL: a complete guide: Morgan Kaufmann series in data management systems. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
A detailed description of SQL, written by the editor for both the ANSI and ISO versions of the standard, it includes both a history of SQL and an introduction to the basics of database management systems. Somewhat technical, but a good reference on the standard.    

2.2.6 Wide Area Information Server (WAIS)

[Directory of /pub/wais] (1997, June 18) [On-line]. Available on the Internet: ftp://quake.think.com/pub/wais
Part of the FTP site for the Internet Archive, this site has freeware implementations of WAIS software for almost all major computing platforms, including DEC Alphas, PC Unix implementations (BSD386 and Linux), MS-DOS, Hewlett Packard, Macintosh, Next, OS/2, IBM's AIX, Silicon Graphics, Sun (Solaris and SunOS 4), and MS-Windows. Source code for WAIS for unix platforms is also available.
Kahle, B., & Medlar, A. (1991, April 8). An information system for corporate users: Wide Area Information Servers [On-line]. Available on the Internet: ftp://ftp.think.com/wais/wais-corporate-paper.text
An overview of the WAIS system by two of its original creators. While focusing on corporate information systems, the document provides a good, simple introduction to the concepts which led to the development of WAIS.
Lincoln, B. (1992, June 1). Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) bibliography [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://ftp.sunet.se/ftp/pub/doc/network/userguides/bibs/lincoln.bib
A bibliography of online and text sources discussing the WAIS protocol and implementations. While many of the on-line sources are no longer available, this does provide a fairly comprehensive listing of resources that may be of interest to those investigating the early versions of WAIS.
Marchionini, G., Barlow, D., & Hill, L. (1994, September). Extending retrieval strategies to networked environments: old ways, new ways, and a critical look at WAIS. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 45(8), 561-64.
A comparative examination of WAIS with a boolean information retrieval system, with some discussion of the larger theoretical and practical problems in developing information systems for use in networked environments.
St. Pierre, M., Fullton, J., Gamiel, K., Goldman, J., Kahle, B., Kunze, J., Morris, H., & Schiettecatte, F. (1994, June). WAIS over Z39.50-1988: Request for comments 1625 [On-line]. Available on the World Wide Web: http://www.internic.net/rfc/rfc1625.txt
This Request for Comments provides an overview of the development of the WAIS protocol and its underlying principals, as well as its implementation under the 1988 version of Z39.50, with the intent of providing the groundwork for conforming WAIS to the more recent versions of Z39.50
Sturr, N. O. (1995, June). WAIS: an Internet tool for full-text indexing. Computers in Libraries 15(6), 52-54.
A brief overview of the development and function of WAIS, focusing on freeware implementations.

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