DRAFT: Serials Acquisitions Glossary Supplement
July 18, 2000; rev 4/25/2002
Access - The ability to gain entry to a database or other digital information (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Accompanying material - Material (CD-ROM, disks, maps, etc.) that comes with the primary item ordered.
Adapter - The circuitry required to support a particular device. For example, video adapters enable the computer to support graphics monitors, and network adapters enable a computer to attach to a network. Adapters can be built into the main circuitry of a computer or they can be separate add-ons that come in the form of expansion boards. <Webopedia:
Address - A name or a sequence of characters that designates an e-mail account or a specific site on the Internet or other network. <Yahoo Reference: American Heritage Dictionary: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/21/a0082100.html> See also URL.
Agent - A program that performs some information gathering or processing task in the background. Typically, an agent is given a very small and well-defined task. Although the theory behind agents has been around for some time, agents have become more prominent with the recent growth of the Internet. Many companies now sell software that enables you to configure an agent to search the Internet for certain types of information. In computer science, there is a school of thought that believes that the human mind essentially consists of thousands or millions of agents all working in parallel. To produce real artificial intelligence, this school holds, we should build computer systems that also contain many agents and systems for arbitrating among the agents' competing results. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Aggregator - 1. An organization which contracts with electronic information providers on behalf of several or many libraries.
2. Provider of a common interface. The noteworthy feature of this type aggregator is the subscribing library negotiates the price of the online periodical subscription directly with publisher or through a subscription agent.
3. A provider of access to a group of electronic journals and/or databases which do not require separate subscriptions. [ Nigel.Gilbert@soc.surrey.ac.uk]. March 6, 1997. Aggregators of Electronic Journals. In Liblicense-l [firstname.lastname@example.org]. < http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/ListArchives/9703/msg00012.html>
Amendment - The process of formally altering or adding to a document or record. <Yahoo Reference: American Heritage Dictionary: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/81/a0248100.html>
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Analog - Electronic equipment that directly records the features of audio or video signals instead of representing those signals digitally. See also Digital.
Application software - (also called end-user programs) includes database programs, word processors, and spreadsheets. Figuratively speaking, applications software sits on top of systems software because it is unable to run without the operating system and system utilities. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/a/application.html>
Archive - 1. To back up data onto disk, tape, or other storage medium. 2. A filing and retrieval system for indefinite preservation of data.
ASCII – Acronym for the American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Pronounced ask-ee, ASCII is a code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127. Most computers use ASCII codes to represent text, which makes it possible to transfer data from one computer to another. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/ASCII.html>
ASCII file - A text file in which each byte represents one character according to the ASCII code.ASCII files are sometimes called plain text files.<Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/ASCII_file.html>
Assignment - A transfer of all or part of the contractual rights and/or obligations to another party. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Attachment - A file attached to an e-mail message. Many e-mail systems only support sending text files as e-mail. If the attachment is a binary file or formatted text file, it must be encoded before it is sent and decoded once it is received. See also E-mail.
Authentication - A process by which the identity of a user accessing a network or other source of information is verified. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Authorization/ password - A unique authorization and password is generated by the publisher/aggregator for an institution or an individual.
Authorized use; permitted use - Use of information that is expressly allowed under a licensing agreement. See also License agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Authorized user; permitted user - A person designated in a licensing agreement as having permission to access or otherwise use the digital information that is the subject matter of the agreement. See also License agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Backup - A copy of a program or file that is stored separately from the original. <Yahoo Reference: American Heritage Dictionary:
Baud rate - Pronounced bawd, the number of signaling elements that occur each second. At slow speeds, only one bit of information (signaling element) is encoded in each electrical change. The baud, therefore, indicates the number of bits per second that are transmitted. At higher speeds, it is possible to encode more than one bit in each electrical change. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/b/baud.html>
Binary format - A format for representing data used by some applications. The other main formats for storing data are text formats, in which each character of data is assigned a specific code number. Binary formats are used for executable programs and numeric data, whereas text formats are used for textual data. Many files contain a combination of binary and text formats. Such files are usually considered to be binary files even though they contain some data in a text. See also ASCII and EBCDIC. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/b/binary_format.html>
Bit-mapped graphics - Images which are created with sets of pixels or dots. Also called raster graphics. See also Raster graphics.
BMP -The standard bit-mapped graphics format used in the Windows environment. By convention, graphics files in the BMP format end with a.BMP extension. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/B/BMP.html>
Boolean search - A search allowing the inclusion or exclusion of documents containing certain words through the use of operators such as AND, NOT and OR. <Search Engine Watch:
Boot - The process of starting or restarting a computer or computer program.
Browser - Short for Web browser, a software application used to locate and display Web page. <Webopedia:
Buffer - A device or area used to store data temporarily. <Yahoo Reference: American Heritage Dictionary: http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entries/31/b0533100.html>
SEE Publisher Bundling
SEE Publisher Bundling
Byte - Abbreviation for binary term, a unit of storage capable of holding a single character. On almost all modern computers, a byte is equal to 8 bits. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/b/byte.html>
Cache - A fast storage buffer in the central processing unit of a computer. Also called cache memory. <Yahoo Reference: American Heritage Dictionary:
CD-ROM (Compact Disc-Read Only Memory) - A physical medium used to store digital data. Specifically, a CD-ROM is a type of compact disc that is read-only, which means that once the data has been recorded onto it, it can only be read, or played.
CD-ROM drive - The device (hardware) used to read a CD-ROM.
SEE Electronic certificates
CGI (Common Gateway Interface) - Generic method of linking external programs with web servers. Commonly used to implement database connections and programs processing web-based fill-out forms (e.g. “Request to Catalog Electronic Resource”).
Character - In computer software, any symbol that requires one byte of storage. This includes all the ASCII and extended ASCII characters, including the space character. In character-based software, everything that appears on the screen, including graphics symbols, is considered to be a character. In graphics-based applications, the term character is generally reserved for letters, numbers, and punctuation. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/c/character.html>
Character-based User Interface
Character string - A series of characters manipulated as a group. A character string is often specified by enclosing the characters in single or double quotes. For example, WASHINGTON would be a name, but 'WASHINGTON' and "WASHINGTON" would be character strings. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/c/character_string.html>
CHUI (Character-based User Interface) - The traditional means by which users have interacted with their computers, based on the display of ASCII characters and user input from the keyboard.
SEE Shrinkwrap agreement
SEE Shrinkwrap agreement
SEE Shrinkwrap agreement
Client-Server Architecture - A network architecture in which each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server. Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing disk drives (file servers), printers (print servers), or network traffic (network servers ). Clients are PCs or workstations on which users run applications. Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and even processing power. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/c/client_server_architecture.html>
Clip art - Artwork or other graphic material in electronic form stored in any of a number of specialized formats (e.g. TIFF, JPEG, BMP). See also TIFF, JPEG, and BMP.
Commercial publisher - A corporate body whose function is that of publishing a work for profit. (CONSER Cataloging Manual, Appendix B: Glossary: http://www.tlcdelivers.com/tlc/crs/manl1634.htm)
Common Gateway Interface
SEE Simultaneous use
Configure - Set up a computer, network, or program for a particular use.
Controller - A device that controls the transfer of data from a computer to a peripheral device and vice versa. For example, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, and printers all require controllers. In personal computers, the controllers are often single chips. When you purchase a computer, it comes with all the necessary controllers for standard components, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drives. If you attach additional devices, however, you may need to insert new controllers that come on expansion boards. Controllers must be designed to communicate with the computer's expansion bus. There are three standard bus architectures for PCs -- the AT bus, PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), and SCSI. When you purchase a controller, therefore, you must ensure that it conforms to the bus architecture that your computer uses. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/c/controller.html>
Conversion - The process of gathering data and transforming it into a standard format before it is transmitted over a so that the data can transcend network boundaries. In order for an to be moved around a network, it must be converted into a data stream that corresponds with the structure of the network transfer.<Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Cookies - A cookie is information that a web site puts on your hard disk so that it can remember something about the user at later time. (More technically, it is information for future use that is stored by the server on the client side of a client/server communication.)
Copies - Reproductions of all or a portion of digital information onto any one of a number of media, including computer diskette, hard-copy printout, or by exact quotation. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Copyright - Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U.S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to do and to authorize others to reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords; to prepare derivative works based upon the work; to distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; to perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works; to display the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and in the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission. More information about copyright can be obtained from the
United States Copyright Office at the Library of Congress. <http://www.copyright.gov> SEE ALSO Public Domain
Coursepacks - Copies of materials assembled by instructors to be used by students in a class, usually in lieu of or in addition to a text book. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Crawler - SEE Spider
Data files - Structured collection of data stored in electronic form that may be organized (structured) as a set of records, or unstructured. (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, p.45)
Data set name
SEE File name
Database - A large, regularly updated store of digitized information (bibliographic references, abstracts, full-text documents, directory entries, images, statistics, etc.) related to a specific subject or field, consisting of records of uniform format organized for ease and speed of search and retrieval, and managed by a database management system (DBMS). Content is created by the database producer (example: American Psychological Association) which usually publishes the print version (Psychological Abstracts) and leases the content to a database vendor (example: EBSCO or OCLC) that provides electronic access to the data after it has been converted to machine-readable form (PsycINFO), usually on CD-ROM or online via the Internet using proprietary search software. <odlis: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science. http://vax.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html>
SEE Dublin Core
Default - A value or setting that a device or program automatically selects if you do not specify a substitute. For example, word processors have default margins and default page lengths that you can override or reset. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
DHTML (Dynamic HyperText Markup Language) - Blanket name for a variety of software and programming techniques used to introduce interactively into web pages.
Dial-up access - Access to digital materials through connection with a remote server through a modem or other remote access device. See also Server. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Digital - Data transmitted as discrete and discontinuous voltage pulses (off and on) represented by the binary digits 0 and 1 known as bits. In digitized text, each character is represented by a specific eight-bit sequence which functions as a unit called a byte. See also Analog. (ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html)
Digital Certificate - An attachment to an electronic message used for security purposes. The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. An individual wishing to send an encrypted message applies for a digital certificate from a Certificate Authority (CA). The CA issues an encrypted digital certificate containing the applicant's public key and a variety of other identification information. The CA makes its own public key readily available through print publicity or perhaps on the Internet. The recipient of an encrypted message uses the CA's public key to decode the digital certificate attached to the message, verifies it as issued by the CA and then obtains the sender's public key and identification information held within the certificate. With this information, the recipient can send an encrypted reply. The most widely used standard for digital certificates is X.509. <Webopedia:
Digital Object Identifier
Digital Versatile Disc
Digital Video Disc
Digitize - To translate or convert into a digital form. For example, optical scanners digitize images by translating them into bit maps. It is also possible to digitize sound, video, and any type of movement. See also Digital.
Directory - A list of files with associated file names that can be viewed and ordered in various ways (e.g. alphabetically or by date, size, or as icons in graphical user interface). Also called a catalogue. See also File name. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbd2.htm#4)
Disc - Alternative spelling of disk. Disc is often used for optical discs, while disk generally refers to magnetic discs, but there is no real rule. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Disk - A round plate on which data can be encoded. There are two basic types of disks: magnetic disks and optical disks. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Disk drive - A machine that reads data from and writes data onto a disk. A disk drive rotates the disk very fast and has one or more heads that read and write data. There are different types of disk drives for different types of disks. For example, a hard disk drive (HDD) reads and writes hard disks, and a floppy drive (FDD) accesses floppy disks. A magnetic disk drive reads magnetic disks, and an optical drive reads optical disks. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Display - Information that appears on the screen of a computer terminal. See also Terminal. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Document - In the PC world, a file created with a word processor. In addition to text, documents can contain graphics, charts, and other objects. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Documentation - Instructions for using a computer device or program. Documentation can appear in a variety of forms, the most common being manuals. When you buy a computer product (hardware or software), it almost always comes with one or more manuals that describe how to install and operate the product. In addition, many software products include an online version of the documentation that you can display on your screen or print out on a printer. A special type of online documentation is a help system, which has the documentation embedded into the program. Help systems are often called context-sensitive because they display different information depending on the user's position (context) in the application. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
DOI (Digital Object Identifier) - An identification system for intellectual property in the digital environment. Developed by the International DOI Foundation on behalf of the publishing industry, its goals are to provide a framework for managing intellectual content, link customers with publishers, facilitate electronic commerce, and enable automated copyright management. (The Digital Object Identifier System: http://www.doi.org)
DNS - SEE Domain Name System
Domain - On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. This domain is organized in levels. The top level identifies geographic or purpose commonality (for example, the nation that the domain covers or a category such as "commercial"). The second level identifies a unique place within the top level domain and is, in fact, equivalent to a unique address on the Internet (or IP). See also Internet and Domain name.
Domain Name - A unique name or address that identifies an any given location on the Internet. See also Domain and Internet.
Domain Name System - A table for translating numerical IP addresses (example: 123.456.78.9) into the alphanumeric domain name addresses (example: www.thisuniversity.edu) which are familiar to Internet users, and vice versa <ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html>
Dots Per Inch
Download - To copy digital information onto a hard drive, diskette or other electronic storage media. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
DPI (Dots Per Inch) - Indicates the resolution of images. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution. A common resolution for laser printers is 600 dots per inch. This means 600 dots across and 600 dots down, so there are 360,000 dots per square inch. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/d/dpi.html)
Dublin Core - A metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. Originally conceived for author-generated description of Web resources, it has attracted the attention of formal resource description communities such as museums, libraries, government agencies, and commercial organizations. See also Metadata and RDF. (Dublin Core Metadata Initiative:
DVD (Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) – Video storage technology using a disc similar in appearance to an audio CD or CD-ROM but with much higher storage capacity. The DVD standard incorporates interactive features and is directly compatible with current computer technology. (Novak, 1998, p.300)
Dynamic HyperText Markup Language
E-journal (Electronic journal) - A full-text electronic publication, which may include image file, intended to be published indefinitely in machine-readable form, delivered electronically to the user directly over the telecommunications network. Sometimes distributed in other electronic formats. (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, p.45)
E-mail - The transmission of messages over communications networks. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. Most mainframes, minicomputers, and computer networks have an e-mail system. Some electronic-mail systems are confined to a single computer system or network, but others have gateways to other computer systems, enabling users to send electronic mail anywhere in the world. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast, flexible, and reliable. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/e/e_mail.html)
EAD (Encoded Archival Description) - A standard for encoding archival finding aids using the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). See also SGML. (Encoded Archival Description Official Web Site: http://www.loc.gov/ead)
EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) – Pronounced eb-sih-dik, EBCDIC is an IBM code for representing characters as numbers. Although it is widely used on large IBM computers, most other computers, including PCs and macintoshes, use ASCII codes. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) - EDI is the transfer for business documents between computers. You can use EDI to send many ordinary documents; purchase orders, invoices, and shipping notices, among others (book Industry Study Group. Basic Introduction to EDI: http://www.bisg.org/edi-guide/introduction.html)
Edifact - A set of internationally agreed standards, directories and guidelines for the electronic interchange of structured data, and in particular, for interchanges related to trade in goods and services, between independent computerized information systems.
EDItEUR - The European group that coordinates the development, promotion and implementation of EDI in the books and serials sectors. (EDItEUR: http://www.editeur.org)
EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) - Provides the graphics modes of the CGA as well as high-resolution modes and sharper text. (EBSCOadmin Glossary:
Electronic Data Interchange
Electronic certificates - A method of limiting access to resources to authorized users. An electronic certificate includes information so that a user could be authorized (e.g. affiliation with a university) against a central database for access to a suite of resources. (Machovec, George, 1997: http://www.coalliance.org/reports/security.htm)
Electronic Data Interchange For Administration, Commerce and Transport
Emulation - Imitation of a computing function by a system not originally designed to perform that function. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
Encoded Archival Description
End user - Person ultimately intended to use a program or system. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
Enhanced Graphics Adapter
Extranet - An intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders. Whereas an intranet resides behind a firewall and is accessible only to people who are members of the same company or organization, an extranet provides various levels of accessibility to outsiders. See also Firewall and Intranet.
Fair Use - The right set forth in Section 107 of the United States Copyright Act, to use copyrighted materials for certain purposes, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Section 107 sets out four factors to be considered in determining whether or not a particular use is fair: (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
(Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) - A document that answers questions about some technical topic. Frequently, FAQs are formatted as help files or hypertext documents. See also Hypertext. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/FAQ.html>
File - A collection of information stored as records. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
File name - A name, usually consisting of a maximum number of alphanumeric characters that are used to identify either a data resource or a program to the computer. Also known as data set name. See also File.
File Transfer Protocol
Firewall – A system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented in both hardware and software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet, especially intranets. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. See also Internet, Extranet, and Intranet. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/f/firewall.html)
Floppy disk - A small, portable plastic disk coated in a magnetisable substance used for storing computer data, readable by a computer with a floppy disk drive. The physical size of disks has shrunk from the early 8 inch to 5 ÂÂ¼ inch to 3 ÂÂ½ while the capacity has risen. See also Disk and Hard Disk. (Electronic Terminology for Acquisitions: http://www.library.yale.edu/ecollections/ETerminology.html)
Format - Any method of arranging information that is to be stored or displayed. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
Force Majeure - Literally, "greater force"; a clause designed to protect against failures to perform contract obligations caused by unavoidable events beyond the party's control, such as natural disasters or wars,
(Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - A high-speed method for transferring files over the Internet. (ARL SPEC Kit 202: Electronic Journals: Issues & Trends, p.99)
Full text - Database that contains word for word all the information of the original publication. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
Gateway - Service that provides or delivers multiple electronic products located at different addresses on the World Wide Web through a single access.
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) - Format for digitized images, designed to be transferable between computer systems. The GIF format is used almost entirely for inline images that appear on Web Pages.
GILS (Government Information Locator Service) - A way to identify, locate, and describe publicly available Federal information resources, including electronic information resources. GILS records identify public information resources within the Federal Government, describe the information available in these resources, and assist in obtaining the information. GILS is a decentralized collection of agency-based information locators using network technology and international standards to direct users to relevant information resources within the Federal Government. (Government Information Locator Service [GILS]: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/gils)
Governing Law - The jurisdiction whose law will be applied in the event of a dispute relating to an agreement < http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml>
Government Information Locator Service
Graphical User Interface
Graphics - Pictorial displays, such as charts, graphs, artwork. (EBSCOadmin Glossary: http://eadmin.epnet.com/eadmin/help/glossary.html)
Graphics Interchange Format
GUI (Graphical User Interface) - Interfacing technique that employs the graphics technology of desktop systems and terminals to enhance the presentation of textual and numeric data, graphical information, and application control. GUIs use facilities such as pull-down and pop-up menus, floating dialog boxes, icons, and a mouse to provide convenience and productivity advantages to end users.
Hard copy - A paper document, including a computer printout.
Hard disk - A non-flexible magnetic disk, in a solid container, used to read and write electronic resources; hard disks can be either fixed or removable. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbd2.htm#4)
Hardware - The physical portion of a computer system, including the electrical/electronic components (e.g. components and circuits), electromechanical components (e.g. a disk drive and central processing system (CPU)), and mechanical components (e.g., keyboard, wires, terminal). (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, p.45)
Home page - The main or opening screen of a hypertext document for a World Wide Web site. Home pages are a subset of "Web pages" that present information on systems, services, and products, and, in addition, provide links in the form of words, URLs, etc., to other related documents and Web sites. See also URL, Web page, and World Wide Web site. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbd2.htm#4)
Host - A computer on the Internet, or any other network, that provides server where web pages can be located.
HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language) - The lingua franca for publishing hypertext on the World Wide Web. It is a non-proprietary format based upon SGML, and can be created and processed by a wide range of tools, from simple plain text editors - you type it in from scratch- to sophisticated WYSIWYG authoring tools. HTML uses tags such as <h1> and </h1> to structure text into headings, paragraphs, lists, hypertext links etc. See also SGML. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/MarkUp)
HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol) - The protocol for moving hypertext files across the Internet. Requires an HTTP client program on one end, and an HTTP server program on the other end. HTTP protocol is the most important protocol used in the World Wide Web (WWW) because it allows for the hyperlinking of resources within graphical or textual contexts. See also Internet, Hyptertext, and World Wide Web. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/Protocols)
Hyperlink - A reference (link) from some point in one hypertext document to (some point in) another document or another place in the same document. A browser usually displays a hyperlink in some distinguishing way, e.g. in a different color, font, or style. When the user activates the link (e.g. by clicking on it with the mouse) the browser will display the target of the link. See also Hypertext and URL. (Free On-line Dictionary of Computing [FOLDOC]: http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/index.html)
Hypermedia - An extension to hypertext that supports linking graphics, sound, and video elements in addition to text elements. The World Wide Web is a partial hypermedia system since is supports graphical hyperlinks and links to sound and video files. New hypermedia systems under development will allow objects in computer videos to be hyperlinked. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/h/hypermedia.html)
Hypertext - A special type of database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, in which objects (text, pictures, music, programs, and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. When you select an object, you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. You can move from one object to another even though they might have very different forms. For example, while reading a document about Mozart, you might click on the phrase Violin Concerto in A Major, which could display the written score or perhaps even invoke a recording of the concerto. Clicking on the name Mozart might cause various illustrations of Mozart to appear on the screen. The icons that you select to view associated objects are called Hypertext links or buttons. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/h/hypertext.html>
Hypertext Mark-up Language SEE HTML
Hypertext Transport Protocol SEE HTTP
ICEDIS (International Committee on EDI in Serials) – Committee of business and technical representatives from the world's leading journal publishers and subscription agents with the goal of developing and defining industry standards for EDI use in facilitating journal subscription processing. (International Committee on EDI in Serials: http://www.icedis.org)
ID login and password - Historically the issuing of logins and passwords has been the primary technique used in the computing community. Upon reaching an IP site, the user is asked to login for access. To improve security, passwords must be periodically changed to cut down unauthorized users who may have somehow gotten passwords. Although this technique works well, it has many challenges: the issuing of logins/passwords can be a huge job especially in a larger library setting (many times users are asked to use their library ID card number), passwords can be distributed by patrons to unauthorized users, if random logins/passwords are issued they are often forgotten and one may end up with many passwords for different systems (unless handled through a gateway or proxy server). See also Gateway and Proxy server. (Machovec, George, 1997: http://www.coalliance.org/reports/security.htm)
ILL SEE Interlibrary Lending
Image file - A file containing graphic information in non-ASCII format. (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, p. 45)
Indemnity - One party's agreement to insure or otherwise defend another party against any claims by third parties resulting from performance under the agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Interlibrary Lending (ILL) - Loaning materials owned or licensed by one library to another library or its users. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Interactive videodisc - A videodisc controlled by computer. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]:
Interface - A shared boundary where two or more systems meet; or the means by which communication is achieved at this boundary. An interface can be between hardware and hardware (such as sockets and plugs, or electrical signals), hardware and software, software and software, human and computer (such as a mouse or keyboard and display screen). <Computer User High-Tech Dictionary: http://www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary/index.html>
Interface/Front End - Screens which the user sees to reach the desired information source. (ARL SPEC Kit 202: Electronic Journals: Issues & Trends, p.99)
International Committee on EDI in Serials SEE ICEDIS
Internet - A large network made up of a number of smaller networks that are connected to each other, using the Internet Protocol (IP) and other similar protocols. The Internet provides such services as file transfer, electronic mail, remote login, and news, among others. See also World Wide Web. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]:
Internet Protocol SEE IP
Internet Protocol Address SEE IP Address
Internet Service Provider SEE ISP
Intranet - An in-house Web site designed to serve only the staff or employees of an organization or enterprise. Intranets use the same TCP/IP and hypertext protocols as the Internet, but access by unauthorized users is usually blocked by a firewall. Also used in a broader sense to refer to any in-house LAN or client-server system. See also Extranet, Firewall, hypertext and TCP/IP. (ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html)
I/O (Input/Output) - Transfer of data into a computer, and from the computer to the outside world. (Computer User High-Tech Dictionary: http://www.computeruser.com/resources/dictionary/index.html)
IP (Internet Protocol) - IP specifies the format of packets, also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transport Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source. IP by itself is something like the postal system. It allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there's no direct link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time. See also TCP/IP. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/I/IP.html>
IP Address - : IP stands for Internet Protocol, the physical address of a client or server computer attached to a network governed by the TCP/IP protocol, written as four sets of Arabic numerals separated by dots (example: 123.456.78.9). Each IP address has an associated alphanumeric Internet address in the Domain Name System (DNS) which is easier to remember. See also TCP/IP and DNS. (ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html)
IP Address Range – Multiple IP addresses that may be used to define the authorized users of an electronic product. See also IP Address.
IP Address Recognition - Method of IP address based authentication that allows users to avoid having to remember passwords and/or to establish that users are accessing the services from an authorized site. See also IP Address.
IP Filtering - IP address (or range of addresses) is used to filter access to a database or service so that only authorized users may gain access. This IP filtering may be done on the same server where the information resides or it may be done on some other server before the user gets to the end point. See also IP address and IP address range. (Machovec, George, 1997: http://www.coalliance.org/reports/security.htm)
ISP (Internet Service Provider) - A company that offers Internet access and value-added services such as web hosting, usually for a monthly fee. ISPs frequently use portions of cable, phone, and satellite networks to implement their service, but they are distinct from these organizations.
JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) - A standardized image compression mechanism. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group, the original name of the committee that wrote the standard. JPEG is designed for compressing either full-color or gray-scale images of natural, real-world scenes. It works well on photographs, naturalistic artwork, and similar material; not so well on lettering, simple cartoons, or line drawings. JPEG handles only still images, but there is a related standard called MPEG for motion pictures. See also MPEG. (JPEG Image Compression FAQ, part1: http://www.landfield.com/faqs/jpeg-faq/part1)
Jukebox - A hardware mechanism for allowing access to one of a group of discs, especially CD-ROMs or other optical media. (Free On-line Dictionary of Computing [FOLDOC]: http://foldoc.doc.ic.ac.uk/foldoc/index.html)
Kerberos - Kerberos is a cryptographic authentication scheme designed for secure use over public computer networks. Through the exchange of encrypted messages called tickets, a user on the network can be authenticated against a centrally administered database of accounts and passwords in such a way that a user's password is never sent unencrypted over the computer network. See also Authentication. <Machovec, George, 1997: http://www.coalliance.org/reports/security.htm>
Keyword - A significant word or phrase in the abstract, title, subject headings (descriptors), or text of a record in a bibliographic database which can be used as a search term in a keywords search to retrieve all the records containing the word or phrase. See also Boolean search. (ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html)
LAN (Local Area Network) – A computer network that spans a relatively small area. Most LANs are confined to a single building or group of buildings. However, one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a wide-area network (WAN). Most LANs connect workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer ) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it is also able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in chat sessions. See also WAN. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/l/local_area_network_LAN.html)
License - Permission to do something which, without such permission, would be illegal. For example, a license to use digital information gives the Licensee permission to access and use the information under the terms and conditions described in the agreement between the licensor and the licensee. See also Licensee and Licensor. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
License Agreement – A written contract setting forth the terms under which a licensor grants a license to a licensee. See also Term(s), Licensor, License, and Licensee. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Licensee - The person or entity that is given permission through a License to access or otherwise use digital information. The licensee, often a library, educational or research organization, generally pays the licensor a fee for permission to use digital information. See also License and Licensor. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Licensing agreement SEE License agreement
Licensor - The person or entity that gives or grants a license. The licensor owns or has permission to distribute digital materials to a licensee. See also License and Licensee. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Link - In a hypertext document, any connection between one address (URL) on the World Wide Web and another, embedded in the text or appearing as a word, symbol, icon, or other graphical element which can be activated by the click of a mouse or other pointing device. Text links may appear underlined and in blue on the computer screen. A broken link is one which does not function properly. The tendency of links within a hypertext document to become broken due to address changes and the demise of Web sites is known colloquially as link rot. See also Hyperlink and URL. (ODLIS: Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science: http://www.wcsu.edu/library/odlis.html)
Local access - A method of obtaining an electronic resource by use of a physical carrier, such as a disk/disc, cassette, or cartridge, designed to be inserted by the user into a peripheral attached to a computer - typically a microcomputer. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]:
Local Area Network SEE LAN
Magnetic Disk - On magnetic disks, data is encoded as microscopic magnetized needles on the disk's surface. You can record and erase data on a magnetic disk any number of times, just as you can with a cassette tape. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com>
Mark-up Language SEE DHTML, HTML, SGML, and XML
Memory - Internal storage areas in the computer. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips, and the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes or disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory, which refers to the actual chips capable of holding data. Some computers also use virtual memory, which expands physical memory onto a hard disk. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory, usually referred to as main memory or RAM. You can think of main memory as an array of boxes, each of which can hold a single byte of information. A computer that has 1 megabyte of memory, therefore, can hold about 1 million bytes (or characters) of information. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/m/memory.html>
Metadata - Metadata is a summary of information about the form and content of a resource. It may describe such things as the author of a work, the date of publication or similar details which help information providers, like librarians, with classification and retrieval. Examples of metadata include: the catalogue records used by libraries, museums and galleries; the table of contents in a book; and an index database. Think of it as data about data. The prefix 'meta' means 'among' or 'together with'. Metadata may be a part of the resource itself, or be kept separately from it. See also Dublin Core, EAD, RDF, and TEI. [Meta Matters: http://www.nla.gov.au/meta/intro.html)
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) - Short for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions, a specification for formatting non-ASCII messages so that they can be sent over the Internet. Many e-mail clients now support MIME, which enables them to send and receive graphics, audio, and video files via the Internet mail system. In addition, MIME supports messages in character sets other than ASCII. There are many predefined MIME types, such as GIF graphics files and PostScript files. It is also possible to define your own MIME types. In addition to e-mail applications, Web browsers also support various MIME types. This enables the browser to display or output files that are not in HTML format. MIME was defined in 1992 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). A new version, called S/MIME, supports encrypted messages. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/MIME.html)
Mirror Site - A Web site that is a replica of an already existing site, used to reduce network traffic (hits on a server) or improve the availability of the original site. Mirror sites are useful when the original site generates too much traffic for a single server to support. Mirror sites also increase the speed with which files or Web sites can be accessed: users can download files more quickly from a server that is geographically closer to them. For example, if a busy New York-based Web site sets up a mirror site in England, users in Europe can access the mirror site faster than the original site in New York. Sites such as Netscape that offer copies or updates of popular software often set up mirror sites to handle the large demand that a single site may not be able to handle. See also World Wide Web site. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/m/mirror_site.html)
Modem (Modulator/DEModulator) - Acronym for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over telephone lines. Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. A modem converts between these two forms. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/m/modem.html>
Modification - A change or alteration to the terms of an agreement See Also Amendment. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Moving Pictures Expert Group SEE MPEG
MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) - The name of family of standards used for coding audio-visual information (e.g., movies, video, music) in a digital compressed format. The major advantage of MPEG compared to other video and audio coding formats is that MPEG files are much smaller for the same quality. This is because MPEG uses very sophisticated compression techniques. (MPEG Pointers and Resources: http://www.mpeg.org/MPEG/index.html)
Multimedia - The set of technologies that permit computers to store, manipulate and display any combination of text (alphanumeric characters), images (still, animated or full-motion) and sound (music or voice). Many computer applications now include more than one form of media.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension SEE MIME
Network - A group of computers linked together to share information. Networks can consist of a number of linked computers in a single physical location, a Local Area Network ("LAN"), or they may consist of computers located at different physical sites linked together by means of phone lines and modems or other forms of long distance communications. See also LAN. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Network Adapter - SEE Adapter
Non-assignable - The licensing agreement and/or the rights, obligations and terms thereof may not be assigned to any party who is not a signatory to the agreement. For example, a library licensee may not assign the right to access licensed materials to another library. See also Non-transferable. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Nondisclosure - An agreement to treat specific information confidentially <Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml>
Non-exclusive - The rights granted to the licensee under the licensing agreement are not given just to that licensee; the licensor reserves the right to give the same or similar rights to use the licensed materials to other parties. See also License, License agreement, Licensee, Licensor. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Non-transferable - The licensing agreement and/or the rights, obligations and terms thereof may not be sold, given, assigned or otherwise conveyed to any party who is not a signatory to the agreement. For example, a library licensee may not sell or give the right to access licensed materials to another library. See also License agreement, Licensee, and Non-assignable. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Operating system - The most important program that runs on a computer. Every general-purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. Operating systems perform basic tasks, such as recognizing input from the keyboard, sending output to the display screen, keeping track of files and directories on the disk, and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers
Optical disk - A storage medium from which data is read and to which it is written by lasers. Optical disks can store much more data -- up to 6 gigabytes (6 billion bytes) -- than most portable magnetic media, such as floppies. There are 3 basic types of optical disks: CD-ROM, WORM, and erasable. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/o/optical_disk.html>
Pay-per-article SEE Pay-per-view
Pay-per-look SEE Pay-per-view
Pay-per-view - Service offered by some publishers and information providers of electronic access at a charge on an article by article basis. Users are allowed to enter an account previously established or a credit card number to see articles from journals not on subscription. May also be referred to as pay-per-look or pay-per-article. (McKay (1999): p.16).
Perpetual License -The continuing right to access digital information after the termination of a license agreement < http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml>
PDF (Portable Document Format) - A file format that has captured all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that can be viewed, navigated, printed, or forwarded to someone else. PDF files are especially useful for documents such as journal articles when there is a need to preserve the original graphic appearance online.
Photo CD (Photo Compact Disc) - A compact disc format developed by Kodak that stores digitized 35 mm slides or negatives. A multi-session CD-ROM drive is required to read images that are added after that original set. See also CD-ROM drive. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]:
Photo Compact Disc SEE Photo CD
Pixel – Often referred to as dot, as in "dots per inch". "Pixel" is short for picture elements, which make up an image, similar to grains in a photograph or dots in a half-tone. Each pixel can represent a number of different shades or colors, depending on how much storage space is allocated for it. Pixels per inch (ppi) is sometimes the preferred term, as it more accurately describes the digital image < http://coloradodigital.coalliance.org/glossary.html>
Platform - The underlying hardware or software for a system. The platform defines a standard around which a system can be developed. See also Operating system.
Plugin - Helper application needed to support the multimedia (animation, sound, etc.) in electronic resources.
PNG (Portable Network Graphics) - PNG is an extensible file format for the lossless, portable, well-compressed storage of images. PNG provides a patent-free replacement for GIF and can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color, grayscale, and truecolor images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel for transparency. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits. See also GIF and TIFF. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/gfx/PNG)
(n) (1) An interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Personal computers have various types of ports. Internally, there are several ports for connecting disk drives, display screens, and keyboards. Externally, personal computers have ports for connecting modems, printers, mice, and other peripheral devices. Almost all personal computers come with a serial RS-232C port or RS-422 port for connecting a modem or mouse and a parallel port for connecting a printer. On PCs, the parallel port is a Centronics interface that uses a 25-pin connector. SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) ports support higher transmission speeds than do conventional ports and enable you to attach up to seven devices to the same port.
(2) In TCP/IP and UDP networks, an endpoint to a logical connection. The port number identifies what type of port it is. For example, port 80 is used for HTTP traffic.
(v) To move a program from one type of computer to another. To port an application, you need to rewrite sections that are machine dependent, and then recompile the program on the new computer. Programs that can be ported easily are said to be portable.
Portable Document Format SEE PDF
Portable Network Graphics SEE PNG
Portal - A term, generally synonymous with gateway, for a World Wide Web site that is or proposes to be a major starting site for users when they get connected to the Web or that users tend to visit as an anchor site. See also Gateway and World Wide Web site.
Producer - The person or corporate body with the financial and/or administrative responsibility for the physical processes whereby an electronic resource is brought into existence. Specific responsibilities may relate in varying degrees to the creative and technical aspects of a particular work, including collecting data and converting data into a computerized form. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]:
Proxy SEE Proxy Server
Proxy server - A method of limiting access to resources to authorized users. In this technique a user must login or pass an IP filter into an intermediate server which is automatically known by the end IP as only passing a legitimate user. Basically, users on one machine are allowed to be passed to another. This technique has been widely used especially for telnet or Z39.50 connections where the user takes on the identity of the last server they passed through. See also IP filtering, Telnet, and Z39.50. (Machovec, George, 1997: http://www.coalliance.org/reports/security.htm)
Public access terminals - Terminals made available to the patrons of a library or other research institution for use by the general public. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Public domain - Any resource (e.g., print, photographs, moving images, music, etc) that is not covered by copyright may be considered part of the public domain. More information about copyright can be obtained from the United States Copyright Office at the Library of Congress <http://www.copyright.gov>. SEE ALSO Copyright
Publisher bundling - Publisher will offer access to online version packaged with subscription to print, or vice versa. One format may be considered "free" or a percentage of the price of the other.
PURL (Persistent Uniform Resource Locators) - A naming and resolution service for general Internet resources. The names, which can be thought of as Persistent URLs (PURLs), can be used in documents, Web pages, and in cataloging systems. PURLs increase the probability of correct resolution over that of URLs, and thereby reduce the burden and expense of maintaining viable, long-term access to electronic resources. See also URL. (PURL: http://www.purl.org)
Raster - The rectangular area of a display screen actually being used to display images. The raster is slightly smaller than the physical dimensions of the display screen. Also, the raster varies for different resolutions. For example, VGA resolution of 640x480 on a 15-inch monitor produces one raster, whereas SVGA resolution of 1,024x768 produces a slightly different raster. Most monitors are autosizing, meaning that they automatically use the optimal raster depending on the monitor's size and the video adapter's resolution. In addition, most monitors have controls that allow you move the raster, resize it, and even to rotate it. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/r/raster.html)
RDF (Resource Description Framework) - The Resource Description Framework, or RDF, is designed to support the many different metadata needs of vendors and information providers. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) integrates a variety of web-based metadata activities including sitemaps, content ratings, stream channel definitions, search engine data collection (web crawling), digital library collections, and distributed authoring, using XML . See also Metadata, Dublin Core, and XML. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/RDF)
Related web sites - Web site related either to print or electronic resource; it may link to table of contents, index, discussion forum, or supplementary material.
Remedies - The special rights a party has when another party defaults or breaches a contract. Remedies include lawsuits or injunctions to stop an action that may harm a party. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Remote access - The ability to access and use digital information from a location off-site from where the information is physically located. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Remote site - Computer access via the World Wide Web from a location other than the main campus, institution, or building. See also World Wide Web.
Remote user - User who accesses programs and data from a location other than the main campus, institution, or building
Resource Description Framework SEE RDF
Rider - Addendum to a license agreement adding another title or product to an already existing license agreement. (Pat's definition, no source)
Rights management - - Refers to methods currently being developed to manage the intellectual property rights associated with digital information available on the Internet. Information providers are currently developing protocols that will facilitate real-time communication between owners and users or licensees, and the systems that will automate rights management. See also Licensees. (Daniel J. Gervais, "Electronic Rights Management and Digital Identifier Systems." JED: The Journal of Electronic Publishing: http://www.press.umich.edu/jep/04-03/gervais.html. Steven L. Dogan, "Copyright in Cyberspace: Rights Management, and Copyright: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act: http://www.cyberspacelaw.org/dogan/dogan5.html).
Robots A program that runs automatically without human intervention. Typically, a robot is endowed with some artificial intelligence so that it can react to different situations it may encounter. Two common types of robots are agents and spiders. < http://www.webopedia.com>
RTF (Rich Text Format) - A text format developed by Microsoft that allows some minimal kinds of formatting (e.g., such as bold, italics and underlined characters) to be saved along with the full text of a document. It was developed as an exchange format to allow documents created with different operating systems and different software applications to be readily interchanged, preserving some formatting elements. Many software applications now allow documents to be translated easily to and from RTF. An RTF file consists of unformatted text, control words, and control symbols. (Cleveland, Gary. "Selecting Electronic Document Formats". UDT Occasional Paper #11 July 1999: http://www.ifla.org/VI/5/op/udtop11.htm).
Serial Item and Contribution Identifier SEE SICI
Server - A computer that stores digital information to be "served" to other computers or workstations through a network or dial-up Access. See also Workstation, Network, and Dial-up access. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Severability - A clause which provides that in the event that one or more provisions of the agreement are declared void or unenforceable the balance of the contract remains in force. Such provisions may also be referred to as separability clauses. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) - A generic markup language for representing documents. SGML completely separates information from its presentation and thus facilitates different presentations of the same information. Web pages are typically encoded with a set of tags called Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML; SGML is the parent language -- the tag-set building rules – for HTML and for most other descriptive tag-sets. See also DHTML, HTML, TEI and EAD. (David Seaman. “About Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)”. University of Virginia Electronic Text Center. http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/sgml.html)
"Shrinkwrap" agreement - The method by which electronic information providers establish the terms under which users may gain access to the information without any negotiation with the user. The term developed in connection with the purchase of software. Ordinarily, software is provided in a box enclosed in a plastic wrap known as "shrinkwrap". The box would state that by removing the shrinkwrap from the box, the purchaser of the software was agreeing to the terms of a licensing agreement included inside the box. The term has been expanded to include the presentation of licensing agreements to software buyers and information users before the program will permit use of the product or information. Known also as "clickwrap", this process requires users to affirmatively click on a button indicating their acceptance of the licensing agreement before they can install the software or view the information. While the issue is not settled in all jurisdictions, the trend in the law has been to consider such agreements enforceable and binding, provided that the user has the opportunity to return the product for a full refund in the event that he or she does not wish to be bound by the terms of the agreement. See also License agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier) - The SICI standard provides an extensible mechanism for the unique identification of either an issue of a serial title or a contribution (e.g., article) contained within a serial, regardless of the distribution medium (paper, electronic, microform, etc.). (SICI : Serial Item and Contribution Identifier Standard. ANSI/NISO Z39.56-1996 Version 2. http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/SICI)
Simultaneous use - Number of users allowed access at any one time to electronic resource. Simultaneous user increments - Pricing structure for electronic resources that provides for incremental increases in the number of simultaneous users allowed access to an electronic resource at any one time. For example, pricing may be based on increments from 1-10 simultaneous users, 11-20 simultaneous users, etc.
Site - As used in a license agreement, a site is a physical location affiliated with the licensee where the licensee may permit access to digital information to authorized users. See also License agreement, Licensee, and Authorized user. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Site license - A particular type of licensing agreement that permits access and use of digital information at a specific site. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml).
Software - A generic term used to refer to the program or sequence of commands executed by a computer system as distinct from the physical languages and application programs. (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, 1994: p.46)
Sound file - Audio formatted for transmission on the Internet. Sound files are hardware specific.
Spider - A program that automatically fetches Web pages. Spiders are used to feed pages to search engines. It's called a spider because it crawls over the Web. Another term for these programs is webcrawler. Because most Web pages contain links to other pages, a spider can start almost anywhere. As soon as it sees a link to another page, it goes off and fetches it. Large search engines, like Alta Vista, have many spiders working in parallel. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/s/spider.html>
Stand-alone workstation - A computer not connected to a network, or computer on which programs are locally installed.
Standard Generalized Markup Language SEE SGML
Tagged Image File Format SEE TIFF
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - The suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. Even network operating systems that have their own protocols, such as Netware, also support TCP/IP. See also IP and Host. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/TCP_IP.html)
TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) - An international project aimed at developing guidelines for the mark-up and encoding of textual material in electronic form for humanities and social sciences research materials. See also SGML. (See Text Encoding Initiative: http://www.tei-c.org, and Electronic Text Center: TEI Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/TEI.html).
TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) header: Descriptive and declarative information making up and "electronic title page" that is attached to a TEI-conformant electronic text. The header consists of four principal components: a file description, encoding description, profile description and revision description. See also SGML and TEI (Text Encoding Initiative).
Telnet - A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/Telnet.html)
Term - 1. A word or phrase; an expression, particularly one that has been defined in a contract 2. A clause or provision of an agreement 3. A fixed and definite period of time. The term of a licensing agreement is the period of time during which the agreement is in effect. See also License agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Terminal - A computer workstation linked to a server or other computer over a network on which a user may display information. When it is merely a video display, it may be referred to as a "Dumb Terminal". See also Workstation, Server, and Network. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Text file: - A file consisting only of standard ASCII characters (with no control characters or high order characters). (ARL Spec Kit 201: Electronic Journals: Policies & Procedures, 1994: p.46)
TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) - One of the most widely supported file formats for storing bit-mapped images on personal computers (both PCs and Macintosh computers). TIFF graphics can be any resolution, and they can be black and white, gray-scaled, or color. Files in TIFF format often end with a .tif extension. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/T/TIFF.html)
UCITA (Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act) - A uniform law that provides fundamental rules for licensing contracts between users and software vendors or vendors of information in electronic form. It was designed to create a uniform commercial contract law for these products and calls itself "a cyberspace commercial statute." See also Shrinkwrap Agreements. (ALA: What is UCITA and Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility: UCITA Fact Sheet: http://www.cpsr.org/program/UCITA/ucita-fact.html)
Unauthorized user - A person designated in the licensing agreement as not having permission to access or otherwise use the digital information that is the subject matter of the agreement or, more often, any person who is not an authorized user, as that term is defined. See also License agreement and Authorized user. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Unicode - Unicode is the universal character encoding scheme for written characters and text. It defines a consistent way of encoding multilingual text that enables the exchange of text data internationally and creates the foundation for global software. As the default encoding of HTML and XML, the Unicode Standard provides a sound underpinning for the World Wide Web and new methods of business in a networked world. Required in new Internet protocols and implemented in all modern operating systems and computer languages such as Java, Unicode is the basis of software that must function all around the world. Unicode goes far beyond ASCII's limited ability to encode only the upper- and lowercase letters A through Z. See also ASCII, HTML, and XML. (UNICODE: http://www.unicode.org/unicode/standard/WhatIsUnicode.html)
Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act SEE UCITA
Uniform Resource Identifier SEE URI
URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) - The generic term for all types of names and addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web. A URL is one kind of URI. See also Hyperlink, URL. World Wide Web, and IP address. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/U/URI.html)
URN (Uniform Resource Name) - A particular scheme which is currently under development which should provide for the resolution using internet protocols of names which have a greater persistence than that currently associated with internet host names or organizations. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/Addressing)
Venue - The particular jurisdiction where a legal dispute is tried < http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml>
Video Adapter - SEE Adapter
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) - The W3C was founded in October 1994 to lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org)
WAIS (Wide Area Information System) - A text searching system that allows the user to find and access resources on the network regardless of where they reside. (ARL SPEC Kit 202: Electronic Journals: Issues & Trends, p.99)
Waiver - The intentional or voluntary relinquishment of a known right or privilege granted under a contract, or the failure to take advantage of some failure of performance or other wrong. For example, if a licensee fails to complain about a series of interruptions in connecting to a licensor's database, the Licensor may later claim that the Licensee has Waived any claim that the service interruptions constituted a breach of the license Agreement. See also Licensee, Licensor, License Agreement. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
WAN (Wide Area Network) – A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs). Computers connected to a wide-area network are often connected through public networks, such as the telephone system. They can also be connected through leased lines or satellites. The largest WAN in existence is the Internet. (Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/w/wide_area_network_WAN.html)
Warranty - A statement or representation that the goods and/or services will perform as promised in the agreement; a guaranty. For example, a license agreement relating to a database of samples of musical compositions may contain a warranty that the licensor has obtained permission from the composers and performers of the individual musical works to provide access to the database to the licensee. See also License, Licensor, and Warranty. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
Watermarking - Method used to uniquely tag documents, images, and other data so that unauthorized copies may be detected and tracked.
Web page - One of the pages of a hypertext document in a World Wide Web site. Web pages, including the subset "home pages", refer to the huge collection of documents that make up the World Wide Web. See also World Wide Web, Hypertext, and Home page.
Wide Area Information System SEE WAIS
Wide Area Network SEE WAN
Workstation - A single terminal or personal computer that may or may not be connected to a larger network. See also Network. (Licensing Digital Information: Definitions of Words and Phrases Commonly Found in Licensing Agreements: http://www.library.yale.edu/~llicense/definiti.shtml)
World Wide Web - An Internet service that links documents through the use of hypertext technology. Links in the form of words, URLs, etc., serve to find and access documents stored on the Internet. See also Internet.
World Wide Web Consortium SEE W3C
World Wide Web site - A location, identified in the form of a URL, on the World Wide Web that stores Web pages for access and use. (International Standard Bibliographic Description for Electronic Resources [ISBD(ER)]: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/pubs/isbd2.htm#4)
WORM - When used in all capital letters, WORM is an acronym for for write once, read many, an optical disk technology that allows you to write data onto a disk just once. After that, the data is permanent and can be read any number of times. Unlike CD-ROMs, there is no single standard for WORM disks, which means that they can only be read by the same type of drive that wrote them. This has hampered their acceptance, although they have found a niche market as an archival media. WORM is also called CD-R. <Webopedia: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/w/worm.html>
X12 - The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) chartered the Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12 to develop uniform standards for interindustry electronic interchange of business transactions-- electronic data interchange (EDI). ASC X12 develops, maintains, interprets, publishes and promotes the proper use of American National and UN/EDIFACT International Electronic Data Interchange Standards. See also EDI. (Accredited Standards Committee X12: http://www.x12.org/x12org/about)
XML (Extensible Markup Language) - XML is the `Extensible Markup Language' (extensible because it is not a fixed format like HTML). It is designed to enable the use of SGML on the World Wide Web. XML is designed `to make it easy and straightforward to use SGML on the Web: easy to define document types, easy to author and manage SGML-defined documents, and easy to transmit and share them across the Web. See also HTML and SGML. (W3C, World Wide Web Consortium: http://www.w3.org/XML)
Z39.50 - ANSI/NISO Z39.50 defines a standard way for two computers to communicate for the purpose of information retrieval. Z39.50 makes it easier to use large information databases by standardizing the procedures and features for searching and retrieving information. Specifically, Z39.50 supports information retrieval in a distributed, client and server environment where a computer operating as a client submits a search request (i.e., a query) to another computer acting as an information server. Software on the server performs a search on one or more databases and creates a result set of records that meet the criteria of the search request. The server returns records from the result set to the client for processing. The power of Z39.50 is that it separates the user interface on the client side from the information servers, search engines, and databases. Z39.50 provides a consistent view of information from a wide variety of sources, and it offers client implementers the capability to integrate information from a range of databases and servers. (International Standards Maintenance Agency. Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Z39.50: http://lcweb.loc.gov/z3950/agency/markup/markup.html)
To suggest new terms, contact a member of the CRS Acquisitions Committee.