The American Library Association v. the United States of America
Based on a document prepared by Nancy Kranich
Chair, American Library Association Intellectual Freedom Committee
Last revised March 19, 2004
Two studies commissioned by Congress, Youth, Pornography, and the Internet, a report published in May 2002 by the National Research Council, and the Final Report of the Child Online Protection Commission (COPA), presented to Congress, October 20, 2000, found that the most effective and least intrusive way to protect our children from objectionable material on the Internet is through online information resources and family education programs.
- Colorado State Library , Colorado Filtering Clearinghouse
- Galecia Group, Library Software Filters
- 2001. "Filtering Software for Kids - Can Ypu Rely on These Digital Chaperones to Shield Your Kids When They Go Online? Our Tests of Leading Software Aren't Very Encouraging". Consumer Reports. 20.
- American Civil Liberties Union, Fahrenheit 451.2: Is Cyberspace Burning? How Rating and Blocking Proposals May Torch Free Speech on the Internet. (New York: ACLU, March 17, 1997).
- Association for Library Service to Children, " Intellectual Freedom for Children: The Censor is Coming," (Chicago, IL: American Library Association, Association for Library Service to Children, 2000).
- Auld, H. 2003. "Filters Work: Get Over It A Virginia Library System Opts for Filtered Internet Access and Makes a Believer Out of One Skeptic". American Libraries. 34: 38-42.
- Ayre, Lori Bowen. Internet Filtering Options Analysis: An Interim Report. [S.l.]: InFoPeople Project, 2001.
- Ayre, Lori Bowen, Library Software Filters. libraryfiltering.org, 2005.
- Bocher, B. 2003. "A CIPA Toolkit". Library Journal -New York-. 128: 36-37.
- Bocher, Bob, " FAQ on E-rate Compliance with the Children's Internet Protection Act," Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, (February 2004).
- Braun, Linda W. Introducing the Internet to Young Learners: Ready-to-Go Activities and Lesson Plans. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2001.
- Center for Democracy and Technology, " Preserving the Freedom to Read in an Era of Internet Filtering: Principles for the Implementation of CIPA-Mandated Filtering in Public Libraries" (Version 1.0) (Washington, D.C., Center for Democracy and Technology, January 2004).
- Chmara, T. 2001. "Privacy and Confidentiality Issues in Providing Public Access to the Internet". Library Administration and Management. 15: 20-22.
- Colorado State Library, Colorado Filtering Clearinghouse.
- Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Filtering FAQ: Version 1.2, (Palo Alto, CA: CPSR, 2001).
- Consortium for School Networking, Promoting Online Safety: The Home-School Partnership Toolkit, (Washington, DC: CoSN, May 2003).
- Corn-Revere, Robert, " United States v. American Library Association: A Missed Opportunity for the Supreme Court to Clarify Application of First Amendment Law to Publicly Funded Expressive Institutions (PDF)," Cato Supreme Court Review, (2002-2003): 105-130.
- Curry, Ann, and Ken Haycock. 2001. "Filtered or Unfiltered?" School Library Journal. 47, no. 1: 42-47.
- Edelman, Ben, Sites Blocked by Internet Filtering Programs: Expert Report for Multnomah County Public Library et al., vs. United States of America, et al. (Cambridge, MA: Ben Edelman, 2002).
- Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC), Faulty Filters: How Content Filters Block Access to Kid-Friendly Information on the Internet, (Washington, DC: EPIC, December 1997).
- Finkelstein, Seth, DMCA Testimony on Censorware April 11, 2003.
- Free Expression Policy Project, Fact Sheet on Internet Filters, (New York: Free Expression Policy Project, July 2003).
- The Galicia Group, " Filtering Companies: Chart."
- Gardner, C. 2001. "School Libraries and Filtering". Library Administration and Management. 15: 23-25.
- Heins, Marjorie, " Identifying What is Harmful or Inappropriate for Minors: White Paper Submitted to the Committee on Tools and Strategies for Protecting Children From Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content," (New York: Free Expression Policy Project, National Coalition Against Censorship, 2001).
- Heins, Marjorie and Christina Cho, Internet Filters: A Public Policy Report, (New York: Free Expression Policy Project, 2nd edition, 2006).
- Heins, Marjorie. Not in Front of the Children: "Indecency," Censorship and the Innocence of Youth. New York: Hill and Wang, 2001.
- Hensley, Thomas R. The Boundaries of Freedom of Expression & Order in American Democracy. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2001.
- Hunter, Christoper D., Filtering the Future?: Software filters, Porn, PICS, and the Internet Content Conundrum (PDF), Master's Degree Thesis (Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsyvlania, Annenberg School for Communication, 1999).
- " The Internet and Our Children (PDF)," (Chicago, IL: Illinois Library Association, February 2000).
- Jaeger, Paul T. and Charles R. McClure, " Potential Legal Challenges to the Application of the Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) in Public Libraries: Strategies and Issues," First Monday, vol. 9, #2, (February 2004).
- Jost, Kenneth. Libraries and the Internet: Are Filters Needed to Block Pornography? CQ researcher, 2001, vol. 11, no. 21. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 2001.
- Junion-Metz, Gail. Coaching Kids for the Internet: A Guide for Librarians, Teachers, and Parents. Internet workshop series, no. 9. Berkeley, Calif: Library Solutions Press, 2000.
- Kaiser Family Foundation, Generation Rx.com: How Young People Use the Internet for Health Information, (Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, December 2001).
- Kranich, Nancy, " Assessing Internet Access: The Public Library Meets the First Amendment in the Information Age (PDF)," Media Studies Journal, (Fall 2000): 42-45; Adobe Reader pps. 53-56.
- Kranich, Nancy. 2001. "Departments - ALA President's Message - "Libraries, Democracy, and Online Access". American Libraries. 32, no. 5: 7.
- Kranich, Nancy, " Why Filters Won't Protect Children or Adults," Library Administration and Management, vol. 17, #4, (Winter 2003): 29-35.
- Kranich, Nancy C. Libraries & Democracy: The Cornerstones of Liberty. Chicago: American Library Association, 2001.
- Maxwell, Nancy Kalikow. Alternatives to Filters. Library technology reports, v. 37, no. 2. Chicago, IL: ALA TechSource, 2001.
- Minow, Mary, " Lawfully Surfing the Net: Disabling Public Library Internet Filters to Avoid More Lawsuits in the United States," firstmonday.org, April 2004
- Morgan, C. 2001. "Liability for Obscenity and Pornography in Providing Internet Access in the Library". Library Administration and Management. 15: 17-19.
- The National Coalition Against Censorship, The Cyber-Library: Legal and Policy Issues Facing Public Libraries in the High-Tech Era, (New York: NCAC, 1999).
- National Research Council, " Tools and Strategies for Protecting Kids from Pornography and Their Applicability to Other Inappropriate Internet Content." (Washington, DC: National Research Council, 2001).
- Nunberg, Geoffrey, " The Internet Filter Farce: Why Blocking Software Doesn't--and Can't-Work as Promised," The American Prospect, 12, #1, (January 1-15, 2001: 28-33).
- Online Policy Group and the Electronic Freedom Foundation, Internet Blocking in Public Schools: A Study on Internet Access in Educational Institutions (PDF), (San Francisco, CA: Online Policy Group, June 2003).
- Richardson, Caroline and Paul Resnick, " See No Evil: How Internet Filters Affect the Search for Online Health Information," (study conducted for the Kaiser Family Foundation), Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, #22: (December 11, 2002): 2887-2894.
- Schneider, Karen G. A Practical Guide to Internet Filters. Neal-Schuman netguide series. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1997.
- Smith, Mark. Managing the Internet Controversy. Neal-Schuman netguide series. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2001.
- Smith, Mark. Neal-Schuman Internet Policy Handbook for Libraries. Neal-Schuman netguide series. New York: Neal-Schuman, 1999.
- Sobel, David, " Internet Filters and Public Libraries (PDF)," First Amendment Center First Reports, vol. 4, #2, (October 2003).
- Trevor Hall, R., and Ed Carter. 2006. "Examining the Constitutionality of Internet Filtering in Public Schools: a US Perspective". Education and the Law. 18, no. 4: 227-245.
- Turow, Joseph, and Lilach Nir. The Internet and the Family 2000: The View from Parents, the View from Kids. Philadelphia: Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
- U.S. Children's Online Protection Act Commission, Final Report of the COPA Commission Presented to Congress, October 20, 2000, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2000).
- U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Children's Internet Protection Act: Study of Technology Protection Measures in Section 1703-Report to Congress. August 2003.
- Wallace, Jonathan D., and Mark Mangan. Sex, Laws, and Cyberspace. New York: M&T Books, 1996.
- WebJunction. WebJunction's Focus on CIPA. Last updated in 2007.
- Weissman, Sara, " Filters: A Checklist for Product Selection,"; Public Libraries, vol. 42, #5, (September/October 2003): 279.
- Willard, Nancy E. Computer Ethics, Etiquette & Safety: For the 21st-Century Student. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education, 2002.
- Willard, Nancy, " Filtering the Internet," Education Week, vol. 21, #28, (March 27, 2002): 36, 39.
- Willard, Nancy E. Filtering Software: The Religious Connection. Eugene, OR: Center for Advanced Technology in Education, University of Oregon, 2002.
- American Library Association/American Association for School Libraries, To Filter or Not: The Pros and Cons of Using Parental Control Software
- American Library Association/Association for Library Service to Children, Great Web Sites for Kids
- Children's Partnership, A Parent's Guide to Online Kids, (Santa Monica, CA: The Children's Partnership, 2006)
- Children's Partnership, Parent's Guide to the Information Superhighway, [available in English, Spanish and Italian] (Santa Monica, CA: The Children's Partnership, 1998)
- GetNetWise, this site is a project of the Internet Education Foundation that provides many resources for families including guidelines and links to educational and entertaining Internet sites appropriate for kids.
- NetSafeKids: A Resource for Parents
NetSafeKids provides practical information and tips on types and sources of sexually explicit content, ways that inappropriate material can reach children and teens, the threat of cyberstalking, the pros and cons of filtering and monitoring tools, and other issues involving Internet safety.
NetSmartz is an Internet safety resource from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children and the Boys & Girls Clubs of America that uses the latest technology to create high-impact educational activities for even the most tech-savvy kids of any age group.
- SafeKids.org, Internet safety and civility advice and tools.
- Social networking sites, (Ccomparitech, April 2016).
- Stay Safe Online, Microsoft and Boys and Girls of America created a 15-minute kid-friendly animated program to help children make smart choices about the use of Internet chat rooms, e-mail and online behavior. Hosted by Shaquille O’Neal.
- Wired Safety Website
- U. S Department of Justice, There's One More Talk You Need to Have
The Department of Justice Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section's Chief, Martha Stansell-Gamm wrote this article that was published by Newsweek regarding the need for parents to find out what their children are doing online and to teach their children how to be good citizens on the NET.(Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, 2003)
- Yahooligans, Safe Surfing with Your Family, (Sunnyvale, CA: Yahoo)
Links to non-ALA sites have been provided because these sites may have information of interest. Neither the American Library Association nor the Office for Intellectual Freedom necessarily endorse the views expressed or the facts presented on these sites; and furthermore, ALA and OIF do not endorse any commercial products that may be advertised or available on these sites.