The Campus Environment for African-American and White Students: Impact on Academic Library Experiences
Ethelene Whitmire, Doctoral Student, The University of Michigan
Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education
School of Education, Ann Arbor, MI
The author gratefully acknowledges the helpful comments of Dr. Sylvia Hurtado, Assistant Professor and Karen A. Kurotsuchi Inkelas, Doctoral Student, University of Michigan - Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education, on earlier drafts of this paper.
The primary purpose of this study is to understand the factors that effect the academic library experiences of 1,392 African-American and 13,817 white undergraduate students. The study examines data from a national, cross-sectional survey completed by undergraduate students during the academic year 1992-1993. Results of t-tests, factor analyses, and multiple regression analyses indicate statistically significant differences between the academic library experiences of African-American and white undergraduate students. African-American students use the academic library services and resources more frequently than the white students. Additionally, the campus environment has a significant influence on the library experiences of African-American students. Implications of the findings suggest the need for the academic library to assess the impact of the campus racial climate on undergraduate students use of the library facilities.
Introduction: Context of the Problem
As the number of minorities in the United States has increased, so too has the number of minority students attending higher education institutions in the United States.(1) Specifically, the number of African-Americans enrolled in college has increased by 27% between 1982 to 1992, from 1.1 million to 1.4 million students.(2) In response to the increasing number of minority students, American colleges and universities have developed diversity and multicultural programs. Academic libraries have also responded by increasing library services, resources, and staff to serve the needs of minority students.(3-13) For example, academic libraries have begun to recruit more minority librarians by creating minority internships for library school graduates(14-15) and the University of Michigan created a Diversity Librarian position in 1988.(16) In addition, collection development practices and policies incorporate multicultural concerns(17) as does bibliographic instruction.(18-19) Finally, the University of Michigan's Shapiro Undergraduate Library has created a peer information counseling (PIC) program which trains undergraduate students to work on the reference desks to ease the comfort of using the academic library for other minority undergraduate students.(20-21)
Some articles, although largely theoretical, also state that the academic library helps increase minority student retention.(22-23) Most empirical articles that have examined the connection between library use and retention have not controlled for race,(24 25 26) however, a study about the use of campus facilities did find that for African-American students, only the use of the campus library for studying could predict retention.(27) Other attempts at examining diversity and multicultural programming in academic libraries include the collection of case histories at the University of Michigan(28) and case studies at the University of California - Santa Cruz, the University of New Mexico, and the University of Albany - State University of New York.(29)
Statement of the Problem
While there is an increasing body of literature discussing the need for increased academic library services for minority students, little is known about the relationship between the college environment and the academic library experiences of African-American students. The current study examines student background characteristics, college status attributes, perceptions of the college environment, and experiences with student acquaintances as determinants of academic library experiences. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if there are significant differences between the academic library experiences of African-American and white undergraduate students caused by the college environment.
Review of the Literature
The literature from two areas frames my inquiry: (1) views of the abilities and achievement of underrepresented groups, intergroup relations on campus, and institutional climate; and (2) empirical academic library use studies.
Views of the Abilities and Achievement of Underrepresented Groups, Intergroup Relations on Campus, and Institutional Climate
A study by Rebecca R. Martin assessed the academic libraries' organizational response to change and the institutional adaptation to student diversity. She interviewed the library director or equivalent, the head of public service and/or reference service, the library instruction coordinator, librarian(s) with multicultural services and ethnic studies collection development responsibilities, and one or two reference librarians--however, no students were interviewed.(30) She found that the university libraries at SUNY-Albany and the University of New Mexico were reluctant about providing special services to only minority students. These libraries expanded their services to all students. Librarians at these institutions did not want to make stereotypical assumptions about minority students. The librarians did not identify differences between white and minority students in terms of 1) library use patterns, 2) requests for information, and 3) library needs. One researcher(31) defines a type of racism as "racism as atmosphere." Racism as atmosphere "is the idea that an organization or an environment might be racist because its implicit, unconscious structures were devised for the use and comfort of white people, with the result that people of other races will not feel at home in such settings". What the librarians failed to recognize, at some level, was that minority undergraduate students might not be comfortable with using the academic library.
Martin found that some librarians did note that there were obstacles between minority students and white librarians.(32) Previous studies have also examined psychological barriers between patrons and library anxiety, but not the impact of race on these interactions.(33 34 35) A psychological barrier related to race that could impact interactions between minority students and the academic library is what Claude Steele defines as "the specter of stigma and racial vulnerability."(36) In the study by Geza Kosa the third most common reason for hesitating to ask the reference librarian for help was the fear of appearing ignorant.(37) A student in the study by Desmond B. Hatchard and Phyllis Toy explained that he/she did not approach the librarian because, "I have a fear of appearing foolish or stupid in case I'm asking an obvious question or a question the answer to which I have already been told but have forgotten".(38) Steele would say that these psychological barriers are exacerbated for the minority student because of "stereotype threat."(39) He defines stereotype threat as "being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group". Minority undergraduate students may be reluctant to approach the reference librarian or attempt to use the various library technologies for fear of appearing uninformed.
The institutional climate of the campus can also influence the comfort level of minority undergraduate students in terms of using the academic library's services, resources, and staff. Elements of the institutional climate include historical, structural, perceptual, and behavioral dimensions of the college environment.(40) The focus of this study will be on the perceptual and behavioral dimensions of the college environment. Perceptions of the college environment vary based on ethnic/racial identification based on students' background characteristics.(41) Behavioral dimensions of the college environment include interactions with students with differing racial, ethnic, religious, etc., backgrounds. I will examine the African-American and white students' interactions with other students, faculty, and administrators as measure of their comfort with the institutional climate.
Martin concluded that the academic library needs of minority students differed due to ability, background, and learning styles. She found that services created for the general student population often failed to address important differences in minority students' needs.(42)
Empirical Academic Library Use Studies
Previous academic library use studies have identified background and college status characteristics that predict academic library use.
There have been few studies that focused on the age of students and library use. However, Tony Mays found that older students have been found to borrow the most items from the academic library.(43)
Gender has not been a consistent predictor of library use. In schools that had a more even distribution of male and female students, females outborrowed the males.(44) Gorham Lane found that the majority of men borrowed no books.(45) However, females did not use the library bibliographical tools more than the male students according to Jane Hiscock.(46) Additionally, of the students who remained in school, men borrowed more than women.(47)
The majority of freshmen (65%) borrowed no books during the study by Lloyd A. Kramer and Martha B. Kramer.(48) Seniors used the library the most, next came sophomores, and then freshmen. In terms of borrowing, the number of books borrowed increased from freshmen to sophomore to junior year with a slight decrease in senior year.(49) Reluctance to ask librarians questions decreased with each class year, for example, juniors were less afraid to approach librarians than were freshmen.(50)
Grade-Point Average (GPA)
Generally, the higher the grade point average (gpa) the more books borrowed.(51) There was a positive correlation between (1) grade achieved and the total time spent in the library during the semester, and (2) frequency of library visits and grade achieved, and (3) average amount of time spent in the library and grade achieved, but they were not statistically significant.(52) A correlational relationship between GPA and the number of books withdrawn failed to reach statistical significance.(53) The students with the highest GPAs did the most borrowing.(54) Students with low GPAs who continued or persisted made significantly greater use of the facilities, including the library, than students with low GPAs who dropped out of college.(55)
Academic Discipline/Major Field of Study
Finally, the most significant factor associated with academic library usage was the discipline the student was studying.(56) According to Jennifer Wells "liberal arts subject areas were associated with more library use and it was conjectured that students in vocational courses such as business have more clearly defined academic goals which preclude the search for ideas, knowledge and prescribed information. Another tentative conclusion was that many of the disciplines associated with reduced measured library use are journal-dependent, and in-library use was not calculated."(57) In general, students majoring in the fields of education, English, history, and political science, and possibly biology and nursing, consistently withdrew more books than students in other major fields.(58)
Statement of the Hypothesis
Based upon the review of the literature, the specific hypothesis being investigated is: There will be a difference in the academic library experiences between African-American and white students which will be influenced by their college environment.
Method Section Data Source
This study utilized data obtained from the 1992 - 1993 College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CSEQ) developed by C. Robert Pace in 1979.* The CSEQ was designed to determine the quality of effort that students put into using the campus facilities among other items.(59) I examined data from four sections of the CSEQ: (1) background and college status characteristics, (2) library experiences, (3) experiences with student acquaintances, and (4) perceptions of the college environment.
*[Data was provided by the Center for Postsecondary Research and Planning at Indiana University and was used with permission. Funding for the support of this study was obtained from the Office of Academic Multicultural Initiatives (OAMI) at the University of Michigan. ]
Based upon the previous academic library use studies, I included a total of five independent variables related to background and college status characteristics in the study based upon previous academic library use literature: background characteristics (age, sex, and racial or ethnic identification); college status (classification in college, grades, and major field of study).
I selected variables measuring perceptions of the college environment which included interactions between students, faculty, and administrators and experiences with student acquaintances.
I selected variables measuring academic library experiences from the library experiences scale that contains 10 items measuring the frequency of experiences. All measures used in the study and codings are located in Table A-1.
Analyses were limited by race to 1,392 African-American and 13,817 white undergraduate students at all class level (freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors) and at all institutional types (Research Universities (RU), Doctoral Universities (DU), Comprehensive Colleges & Universities (CCU), General Liberal Arts Colleges (GLA), Selective Liberal Arts Colleges (SLA) and Associate of Art Institutions (AAI). Table 1 provides descriptive information of my sample, based on means, standard deviations and t-tests for all variables in the study. I eliminated Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander, Latino, and graduate students from the sample. Additionally, I eliminated students from institutions that were not immediately identifiable as one of the institutional types identified above.
Initital bivariate analyses (t-tests) were used to examine differences between African-American and white students. Next, I conducted separate exploratory factor analyses by racial/ethnic groups, utilizing orthogonal, principal axis factor rotation methods, to reduce the number of measured variables for analyses and to eliminate highly correlated variables. I used oblique factor analysis in this study because I assumed that these factors are correlated. I retained items that had a factor score of at least a .35 or over in the development of subsequent scales. These results are in Tables 2 and 3, along with alpha reliabilities. The separate factor analyses by race revealed differences in the academic library experiences of white and African-American students. The variable "Checked out books to read (not textbooks)" loaded on factor 1 for African-American students and on factor 2 for white students. I dropped the variable "Used the library as a quiet place to read or study materials you brought with you" because of its low factor score (below .35) for both African-American and white students. ( Table A-2 contains a comparison of the estimates of internal consistency for the factor scales of white and African-American students). The library experiences variables divided into two factors: library probing activities and library reference activities. Library reference activities describe "routine, moderately exploratory use" of the academic library. Library probing activities refers to "increased amounts of independent exploration and focused activity".(60)
I substituted missing data with the means from each racial/ethnic group by each variable. Finally, I conducted multiple regression analyses to identify the significant determinants of academic library experiences. I entered independent variables that reflected student background and college status characteristics, experiences with student acquaintances, and perceptions of the college environment in a hierarchical fashion. (See Table A-1 for a listing of scales and measures used in the regression model).
In order to examine the degree to which African-American and white students differed by the student background and college characteristics, I calculated mean levels for both groups and computed t-tests for independent samples. Results of the t-tests on student background and college status characteristics revealed that the African-American student population contained a larger percentage of female students, younger students, fewer upperclassmen, lower college grade-point averages, and were more likely to studying in liberal arts fields. All of the background and college status characteristics were statistically significant at the p < .001 level except for college grade-point average which was not significant.(The results of all t-tests are reported in Table 1).
In order to examine the degree to which African-American and white students differed in their academic library experiences I calculated mean satisfaction levels for both groups and computed t-tests for independent samples. All of the differences in library experiences were statistically significant except for the variable "checked citations in things read." African-American students used the library resources more frequently than the white students for the remaining eight library experiences variables.
Four of the five experiences with student acquaintances variables were statistically significant (p = < .001) except for the variable "made friends with students whose age was very different from yours." African-American students were more likely than the white students to make friends with students who were different.
Additionally, for the three variables measuring perceptions of the campus environment, only one variable, "relationships with faculty members", was statistically significant. White students were more likely than African-American students to perceive the faculty as more approachable.
Block hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, in terms of library reference activities for African-American students, experiences with student acquaintances accounted for the largest share of the explained variance when compared to background and college status characteristics and perceptions of the college environment. Experiences with student acquaintances contributed 3 percent of the variance. For white students, both background characteristics and experiences with student acquaintances contributed equally (3 percent) to the variance. Perceptions of the college environment accounted for the lowest share of the explained variance for both groups.
Block hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, in terms of library probing activities for African-American students, that experiences with student acquaintances, once again, accounted for the largest share of the explained variance with 3 percent. Background characteristics accounted for the largest share, 3 percent, of the explained variance for the white students. Once more, perceptions of the college environment accounted for the lowest share of the explained variance for both racial/ethnic groups.
Table 4 shows the beta coefficients from regressing library reference activities for African-American and white students on background characteristics, experiences with student acquaintances, and perceptions of the college environment. All of the independent variables are statistically significant for the white students. Only gender, college grades, experiences with student acquaintances, and perceptions of the college environment were statistically significant for African-American students. The younger the student, the less frequently the student was engaged in library reference activities. This finding was true for both racial groups.
Table 5 shows the beta coefficients from regressing library reference activities on each of the independent measures. Once again, all of the independent measures for white students were statistically significant. Male students were less likely to engage in library probing activities. None of the student background characteristics for the African-American students were statistically significant. Only experiences with student acquaintances and the perceptions of the college environment were significantly related to the library probing activities of African-American students.
This study provides insights into the differing academic library experiences of African-American and white undergraduate students at American higher education institutions. I assessed background characteristics, and the perception of the institutional climate in order to understand their influence on reference and probing activities in the academic library.
I found confirmation for my assumption that a comfortable institutional climate would enhance the minority undergraduate students' use of the academic library. African-American students who interacted with students from different backgrounds were more likely to use the academic library. Furthermore, African-American students who perceived a welcoming college environment were also more likely to use the academic library.
My goal was to provide researchers, academic librarians, and administrators with insights into aspects of the college environment and background and college status characteristics that may impact the library experiences of African-American students differently from white students.Thus, the purpose of the present study was to explore the effect of the college environment on the academic library experiences of African-American undergraduates. In doing so, this investigation extends previous research (a) by determining specific background and college status characteristics that influence African-American students' academic library experiences, and (b) by exploring aspects of the college environment that encourage African-American students use of the academic library.
T-Tests for Differences Between African-American and White Students: Means and Standard Deviations of Variables by Race
|Student Background Characteristics|
|Classification in College***||2.45||1.23||13817||1.95||1.18||1392|
|Major Field of Study***||0.50||0.50||13817||0.55||0.50||1392|
|Used card catalogue or computer***||2.47||.870||13780||2.67||.921||1387|
|Asked librarian for help***||1.99||.769||13776||2.32||.867||1388|
|Read in reserve or reference section***||1.95||.808||13776||1.98||.882||1384|
|Used indexes to journal articles***||2.03||.839||13770||2.06||.887||1385|
|Developed bibliography** *||2.31||.901||13785||2.41||.957||1386|
|Found material by browsing in stacks**||1.73||.823||13789||2.07||.934||1389|
|Checked citations in things read||1.71||.804||13786||1.87||.872||1380|
|Read basic references or documents***||1.45||.669||13778||1.65||.810||1384|
|Checked out books***||1.78||.850||13783||2.07||.956||1386|
|Experience with Student Acquaintances|
|Made friends -with different majors***||2.94||.907||13738||3.00||.864||1381|
|Made friends -with different interests***||2.73||.883||13736||2.83||.852||1380|
|Made friends -w/ different backgrounds***||2.79||.878||13716||2.96||.857||1382|
|Made friends -with different ages||2.75||.888||13743||2.86||.903||1380|
|Made friends -with different races* **||2.58||.857||13731||2.84||.934||1381|
|Perceptions of the College Environment|
|Relationships with other students||5.40||1.41||13736||5.26||1.42||1374|
|Relationships with faculty members***||5.19||1.39||13740||4.86||1.49||1371|
|Relationships with admin personnel||4.20||1.68||13728||4.37||1.68||1371|
|*** p =< .001; **p=<.01 |
note: variable scales are reported in table a-1
Factor Loadings and Internal Consistencies for Confirmatory Factor Model of Library Experiences, Experiences with Student Acquaintances, and Perceptions of the College Environment Variables (african-american students)
|factors and survey items||factor loading||internal consistency |
|Dependent Library Experiences|
|Library Reference Activities||.76|
|used card catalogue or computer||.67|
|developed a bibliography||.64|
|used indexes to journal articles||.60|
|asked librarian for help||.52|
|read in reserve or reference section||.46|
|Library Probing Activities||.76|
|read basic references or documents||.80|
|checked citations in things read||.73|
|found material by browsing in stacks||.53|
|checked out books||.35|
|Experiences With Student Acquaintances||.87|
|made friends - with different interests||.79|
|made friends - with different backgrounds||.77|
|made friends - with different majors||.75|
|made friends - with different ages||.61|
|made friends - with different races||.51|
|Perceptions of the College Environment||.72|
|relationships with faculty members||.76|
|relationships with admin personnel||.73|
|relationships with other students||.45|
Factor Loadings and Internal Consistencies for Confirmatory Factor Model of Library Experiences, Experiences with Student Acquaintances, and Perceptions of the College Environment Variables (white students)
|factors and survey items||factor loading||internal consistency |
|Dependent Library Experiences|
|Library Reference Activities||.77|
|used card catalogue or computer||.67|
|developed a bibliography||.68|
|used indexes to journal articles||.65|
|asked librarian for help||.49|
|read in reserve or reference section||.44|
|Library Probing Activities||.75|
|read basic references or documents||.64|
|checked citations in things read||.65|
|found material by browsing in stacks||.64|
|checked out books||.52|
|Experiences With Student Acquaintances||.88|
|made friends - with different interests||.81|
|made friends - with different backgrounds||.77|
|made friends - with different majors||.76|
|made friends - with different ages||.54|
|made friends - with different races||.54|
|Perceptions of the College Environment||.69|
|relationships with faculty members||.71|
|relationships with admin personnel||.68|
|relationships with other students||.46|
Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Library Reference Activities
|Library Experiences Measures|
|gender of student||.74 ***||.40 ***|
|age of student||-.26||-.18 ***|
|classification in college||.01||.21 ***|
|most college grades||.24 **||.21 ***|
|major field of study||.06||.35 ***|
|experiences with student acquaintances||.15 ***||.14 ***|
|perceptions of the college environment||.06 *||.07 ***|
|F (equation)||12.11 ***||132.28 ***|
|(*p= <.05, **p =<.01, ***p=<.001)|
Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Library Probing Activities
|gender of student||-.08||-.48 ***|
|age of student||.17||.33 ***|
|classification in college||-.07||.12 ***|
|most college grades||.08||.12 ***|
|major field of study||.16||.43 ***|
|experiences with student acquaintances||.13 ***||.10 ***|
|perceptions of the college environment||.05 *||.04 ***|
|F (equation)||7.97 ***||117.72 ***|
|(*p= <.05, **p =<.01, ***p=<.001)|
Measures and Scales for the Regression Model
|Student Background Characteristics|
|gender of student||1 = female; 0 = male|
|race (african-american and white)||(conducted separate regressions by race)|
|age of student||1 = 22 or younger to 3 = 28 or older|
|classification in college||1 = freshman to 4 = senior|
|most college grades||1 = c, c-, or lower to 5 = a|
|major field of study||0 = professional; 1 = liberal arts|
|Experience with Student Acquaintances|
|made friends - with different majors||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|made friends - with different interests||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|made friends - with different backgrounds||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|made friends - with different ages||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|made friends - with different races||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|Perceptions of the College Environment|
|relationships with other students||1 = competitive, etc. to 7 = friendly, etc.|
|relationships with faculty members||1 = remote, etc. to 7 = approachable, etc.|
|relationships with admin personnel||1 = rigid, etc. to 7 = helpful, etc.|
|Dependent Academic Library Experiences|
|Library Reference Activities|
|used card catalogue or computer||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|asked librarian for help||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|read in reserve or reference section||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|used indexes to journal articles||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|developed a bibliography||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|library probing activities|
|found material by browsing in stacks||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|checked citations in things read||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|read basic references or documents||1 = never to 4 = very often|
|checked out books||1 = never to 4 = very often|
Factor Scale: Estimates of Internal Consistencies (Alpha) by Student Sample
4 Note: Items constituting each scale are reported in tables 3 and 4
Exploratory procedures used to develop scales are reported in the methodology section.
|Factor Scale||Number of items||African-American||White|
|Library Reference Activities||5||.76||.77|
|Library Probing Activities||.76||.75|
|Experiences with Student Acquaintances||5||.87||.88|
|Perceptions of the College Environment||3||.72||.69|
1 Carter, Deborah, and Reginald Wilson. ACE Tenth Annual Status Report . Washington, DC: ACE, 1992.
2 Otuya, Ebo. African Americans in Higher Education. 5. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1994.
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14-15 DeBeau-Melting, Linda, and Karen M. Beavers. "Positioning for Change: The Diversity Internship As a Good Beginning." Diversity and Multiculturalism in Libraries. Ed Katherine Hoover Hill. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc., 1994. 227-42; Wrighten, Mary G. "The Significance of a Minority Reference Internship Program." Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Libraries: Multicultural Issues. Eds. Deborah A. Curry, Susan Griswold Blandy, and Lynne M. Martin. New York: Haworth Press, Inc., 1994. 57-66.
16 Riggs, Donald E., and P. A. Tarin. Cultural Diversity in Libraries. New York: Neal-Schulman, 1994.
17 Figueredo, Danilo H. "The Many We Are: Guidelines for Multicultural Collections Based on the Bloomfield College Project." Diversity and Multiculturalism in Libraries. Ed Katherine Hoover Hill. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., 1994. 63-74.
18-19 Mandernack, Scott B., Poping Lin, and David M. Hovide. "Cultural Awareness and Bibliographic Instruction in Academic Libraries." Diversity and Multiculturalism in Libraries. Ed Katherine Hoover Hill. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., 1994. 85-104; Hall, Patrick Andrew. "The Role of Affectivity in Instructing People of Color: Some Implications for Bibliographic Instruction." Library Trends 39.3 (1991): 316-26.
20-21 Downing, Karen E., Barbara MacAdam, and Darlene P. Nichols. "Reaching a Multicultural Student Community: A Handbook for Academic Librarians.". Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
22-23 Jones-Quartey, Theo S. "The Academic Library's Role in the Effort to Improve Minority Retention." The Educational Forum 57 (1993); Kelly, Maurie Caitlin. "Student Retention and Academic Libraries." College & Research Libraries News 56.11 (1995): 757-59.
24 Hiscock, Jane E. "Does Library Usage Affect Academic Performance?" Australian Academic & Research Libraries 17.4 (1986): 207-14.
25 Kramer, Lloyd A., and Martha B. Kramer. "The College Library and the Drop-Out." College & Research Libraries (1968): 310-12.
26 Wells, Jennifer. "The Influence of Library Usage on Undergraduate Academic Success." Australian Academic & Research Libraries 26.2 (1995): 121-28.
27 Mallinckrodt, Brent, and William E. Sedlacek. "Student Retention and the Use of Campus Facilities by Race." NASPA Journal 24.3 (1987): 28-32.
28 DuMont, Rosemary Ruhig, Lois Buttlar, and William Caynon. "Multiculturalism in Libraries.". Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
29 Martin, Rebecca R. "Libraries and the Changing Face of Academia: Responses to Growing Multicultural Populations.". Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1994.
31 Blauner, Robert. "Talking Past Each Other: Black and White Languages of Race." The American Prospect, No. 10. (Summer 1992).
32 See note 29 above.
33 Hatchard, Desmond B., and Phyllis Toy. "The Psychological Barriers Between Library Users and Library Staff." Australian Academic & Research Libraries 17 (1986): 63-70.
34 Kosa, Geza. "The Psychological Barrier Between College Students and the Librarian." Australian Academic & Research Libraries 13 (1982): 102-12.
35 Mellon, Constance A. "Library Anxiety: A Grounded Theory and Its Development." College & Research Libraries (1986): 160-65.
36 Steele, Claude. "Race and the Schooling of Black Americans." Atlantic Monthly (1992): 68-78.
37 See note 34 above.
38 See note 33 above.
39 Steele, Claude. "Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 9.5 (1995): 797-811.
40 Hurtado, Sylvia. "The Institutional Climate for Talented Latino Students." Research in Higher Education 35.1 (1994): 21-41.
41 Hurtado, Sylvia. "The Campus Racial Climate: Contexts for Conflict." Journal of Higher Education 63.5 (1992): 539-69.
42 See note 29 above.
43 Mays, Tony. "Do Undergraduates Need Their Libraries?" Australian Academic & Research Libraries 17.2 (1986): 51-62.
45 .Lane, Gorham. "Assessing the Undergraduates' Use of the University Library." College & Research Libraries 27.4 (1966): 277-82.
46 See note 24 above.
47 See note 25 above.
49 See note 45 above.
50 See note 34 above.
51 See note 43 above.
52 See note 26 above.
53 See note 45 above.
54 See note 25 above.
55 Churchill, William D., and Stanley I. Iwai. "College Attrition, Student Use of Campus Facilities, and a Consideration of Self-Reported Personal Problems." Research in Higher Education 14.4 (1981): 353-65.
56 See note 43 above.
57 See note 26 above.
58 See note 45 above.
59 Pace, C. Robert. Measuring the Quality of College Student Experiences. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute - Graduate School of Education - University of California, Los Angeles, 1984.