Teaching Methods Committee Brainstorming Sessions: 1994 - present

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   ALA Annual 2005 - Brainstorming Session
Saturday, June 25, 2005 3:30-4:30 p.m.
Palmer House Hilton - Wabash Parlor
48 participants

Engaging the Google Generation

The participants sat at small discussion group tables and the room was divided into two so that we could get the first and second questions on the floor at once. The small groups discussed for 20 minutes and then each small group reported back their best idea. We had all groups discuss the third question for 20 minutes and then each small group reported back their best idea. At the end of the session participants were asked to fill out a short evaluation.

Below is a compilation of the notes generated from the session. Groups were asked to submit their notes at the end of the session . Below are the questions and the bullet points represent the notes from each group, duplicate responses have been deleted.

  1. How can I help students transfer existing web skills to other resources? Access current searching skills
    • Parallels to keyword searching
    • Google helps explain stop words and spelling problems
    • Advanced Google Domain search is like choosing databases
    • Identify a keyword
    • Basic understanding of Boolean
    • Students don’t understand the relationship b/w Google and Library resources
    • Students are not afraid to experiment, will new try stuff
    • Transfer skills to federated searching/similar underlying concepts
    • Use of metaphor to explain Google and library resources differences
    • Compare Google to advance search features of databases
    • Use web directories as a model for print sources
    • Both Google and databases already using Boolean and phrase searching
  2. How can I incorporate advanced web searching concepts and/or Google Scholar into instruction sessions?
    • Wouldn’t use Google Scholar, still in Beta
    • Use evaluation examples such as the Godsend Institute
    • Do the same search in the Web and databases to compare
    • Evaluate credibility of the Web
    • Compare the time it takes to compare credibility on the Web to how quickly articles are found in databases
    • Teach Google as one of the many tools available.
    • Show them tricks/shortcuts
    • Read literature/Educause
    • Compare and contrast search engines with databases
    • Do the same search in Google Scholar as in Databases
    • Justify choices, note differences between sources
    • How much is full text?
    • Some libraries have committees trying to decide whether to place Google Scholar on their homepage.
    • Most students don’t know how to do advance searching on the Web. They are not interested in the process but the results.
    • Librarians tend to overuse certain databases and should expand by introducing Google Scholar in instruction.
  3. How can I anticipate and teach to significant changes impacting internet searching?
    • Use Blogs.
    • Incorporate sites with technologies
    • Set up focus groups for student feedback
    • Stay current with newsletters and poster sessions
    • Watch campus technology changes
    • Search Engine Watch - http://searchenginewatch.com/
    • Teach EPIC (Museum of the Media History) - http://epic.chalksidewalk.com/
    • Rely on experts
    • Digests, listservs
    • Define info vs. knowledge
    • The question is really anticipating, and it is impossible
    • Talk to the students
    • Start a library blog of your own
    • Review blogs on MIT and Cal Tech
    • Remember that we’re teaching critical thinking and that the technologies will change, but critical thinking skills won’t
    • Have students discuss the good and the bad
    • Play devil’s advocate
    • Always keep credibility in mind

Session Concluded at 4:30pm.

Minutes Submitted by:
Michelle Jacobs

   ALA Midwinter 2005 - Brainstorming Session
Sunday, January 16, 2005 2:00-4:00pm
Sheraton Boston Hotel - Back Bay C
54 participants

Title: Economic, Legal, and Social Issues, Oh My! - Information Literacy Standard #5 in Practice

Information Literacy Standard #5: The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally.

The participants sat at small discussion group tables and the room was divided into two so that we could get more topics on the floor. The small discussion groups on the left side of the room were asked to discuss their question and come up with the top three ideas they had and the small discussion groups on the right side of room were asked to do the same with their question.

The small groups discussed for 30 minutes and then each small group reported back to the rest of the room their findings. After one-side of room finished, individuals from the other side had time to ask questions and make comments. The discussion was particularly lively about plagiarism. We used the same method again with two more questions.

At the end of the session participants were asked to list one idea they would take away from the session and one topic they would like to see in future sessions.

Below are the reports from each of the small groups. In some cases, more comprehensive notes were provided by the group recorder.

Question #1: Plagiarism Prevention & Detection: What's our role?

Group 1
- Education for Students and faculty on how easy it is to detect, Turnitin.com and Google.com as an example.
- Develop partnerships with staff and advisory councils, dean of students.
- Reach out to High Schools and Department of Education, for early prevention.

Group 2
- Offer feedback to Instructors, let them know what we are seeing at the Reference Desk.
- Teaching the big picture/reinforce concepts.
- Develop learning tools, handouts, and tutorials.

Group 3
- Outreach to the writing centers and computer centers on campus.
- Reach out to parents.
- Promote available resources i.e. endnote.
- Develop relationships with faculty.

Group 4 (notes provided by the group)
- outreach - to campus, faculty, writing centers
- feedback to faculty about gaps in student understanding
- creation of learning objects: handouts and tutorials
- promote tools for being organized in research and creating citation pages and citing resources: will help prevent plagiarism and encourage giving credit
- educate, not police
- work on breaking down citations: also helps in evaluating resources
- help students know why it's important not to plagiarize
- help faculty learn strategies for prevention (like creative assignments, using drafts/writing process instead of turning in one final paper)
- educate about plagiarism detection software (doesn't work)
- link plagiarism to teaching what research is: the research process (learning and synthesizing ideas & information into one's own thoughts) is anti-plagiarism.
- Developing a voice to write in, emphasizing revision and participating in an intellectual community
- become a presence in faculty orientation

Whole Group Discussion
- Discuss why it is important
- Work with faculty
- Ethical use and academic integrity
- Students know how to beat all of these detection programs, they don't work. (Study about Turnitin.com)
- The lawsuit in Canada over who owns the rights to a students work.
- Important to educate High School and Middle School students.
- Use concrete examples of how to use other people's ideas.

Resources mentioned during discussion:
- The Plagiarism Plague: A Resource Guide and CD-ROM Tutorial for Educators By Vibiana Bowman, Editor
- Chapter 13 Plagiarism Busters: Free (and Not-So-Free) Web Resources for Plagiarism Detection by Eileen Stec and Dr. Mallika Henry
- Rutgers Plagiarism Tutorial - http://www.scc.rutgers.edu/douglass/sal/plagiarism/intro .html

Question 2: Copyright: How do we help students understand its importance?

Group 1
- Use music as an example; Napster
- Explain the consequences.
- Teach them how to personalize an idea
- What are the rules?

Group 2
- Accentuate the positive, do not jump to the negative approach
- Use relevant examples such as images and music
- Look into available tutorials tied to trademark issues

Group 3
- Integrate it into the curriculum without making it boring
- Trademark vs. copyright what are they and do they effect you (students)
- How you can use things rather than how you can't
- Uses websites as example- show how some copyright content and how others allow you to use whatever you want as long as you give credit.

Group 4
- Exercise using Google Images- What can be used? Have them seek permission to use the image. What is the result.
- Teach them about their own work-when they write a paper or create a website who can use it?
- Legal implications in the work place.

Resources mentioned during discussion:
- Brigham Young University Copyright Tutorial - http://lib.byu.edu/departs/copyright/tutorial/intro/page1.htm

Question 3: Standard #5: Where does it fit in an overall information literacy program, as well as in a one shot session?

Group 1
- Work with the office of Intellectual Property or the equivalent and develop a workshop
- Work with Judicial Review Board or equivalent so that students who are brought before the board must then meet with a librarian.
- This provides librarians an opportunity to both teach and introduce important resources.
- Work with the writing center and campus tutors to make sure information is consistent across campus.

Group 2
- Develop faculty workshop
- Try to include IL statements on all syllabi - what is it
- Work with departments administration to involve new faculty
- Show them tools that they can use in the classroom

Group 3 (notes provided by group)
- Present workshops for faculty
- Have campus-wide plagiarism statement in all syllabi
- Add resources to web page
- Listserv for staff & faculty about ethical use of information issues
- Offer a forum for faculty (with food!)
- Encourage creative assignments
- Send tips to faculty
- Be positive!
- Be involved in administrative bodies: J board, for example (students who infringe can be required to meet with librarian to learn how to use information resources more effectively - as a prevention measure)
- Be involved in new faculty orientation
- Work with the office of intellectual property/legal office to create standards
- Integrate standards with curriculum: take advantage of freshmen seminars to present this information
- Be mindful of the need to use language that resonates with different communities on campus: administration, legal, academic affairs, etc.
- Work with the center for academic excellence to create connection with faculty

Group 4
- Bring in guest speakers to departments on campus
- Online tutorials
- Use the freshman orientation to promote the importance of IL
- Maybe changing the name Information Literacy to something less library jargonish
- Include IL in learning outcomes for the university

Whole Group Discussion
- Information Commons- works with all departments
- Work with the center of Academic Excellence - some libraries have the center contained in them.
- Have another department host a lunch in the library or Information Commons.
- Stay away from Library Jargon- look into terms that the disciplines use.

Resources mentioned during discussion:
- USC Information Commons

Question 4: Free vs. fee-based access: What are some strategies to teach students the difference?

Group 1
- Use analogies - Walmart vs. Nieman Markus - Abercrombie and Fitch; What is in your closest vs. buying new clothes
- Website evaluation form
- Look at difference in free web- such as Satire sites that look reputable
- Show how the library catalog stops you when you make a mistake - by finding no results.
- Show real life examples

Group 2
- You get what you pay for.
- The web is not any faster- show a side-by-side comparison.
- Reinforce the cost of the library databases and how they pay for it as students
- Show how students who use library databases get better grades.

Group 3 (Notes provided by group)
- Stress pre-evaluation of web sites: who produced? when? to what end?
- Make sure the faculty won't accept just anything from students
- Compare searches: library resource/Google/deep web
- Include resources that are free and reliable and scholarly
- Discuss the costs of databases: demystify
- Emphasize what free resources and the superficial web are good for, and what to do with the information you find there
- Can't rely on free vs. fee distinction, or even deep/superficial web: it really comes down to evaluating resources: each student needs to have the ability to do this; there is no substitute for critical thinking
- Remind them not to pay, but to check their library first!

Group 4
- Stress cost of Databases
- Show how free often leads to fee for full text
- Explain peer review process
- You do find good things on the web, you need to know how to search for those

Group 5
- James Neal: "order breeds habit while chaos breeds life." The distinction between free vs. fee is no longer entirely valid schoogle/Google Scholar is good, some libraries link to it from their site.
- Manage free website lists on your library page
- Lots of time the pay sites are missing content that can be fund for free on the web
- It all comes down to evaluation of what is out there

Resources mentioned during the Discussion:
- http://schoogle.blogspot.com/
- http://www.scirus.com/srsapp/
- http://graylit.osti.gov/
- http://jnul.huji.ac.il/rambi/

Session Concluded at 4:00pm.

Minutes Submitted by:
Michelle Jacobs

   ALA 2004 Annual Conference, Orlando, Florida
Saturday, June 26, 2004
10 guests

Collaboration Counts: Librarians and faculty team up for student success.

Question 1: Please share your successes and challenges in creating new collaborations with faculty. You might want to include recruiting, marketing, preparedness, and creating a environment conducive to information literacy.


Group 1:
1. Taking specific topic and morph it into information literacy.
2. Multiple short visits to class
3. Identify courses with research component

Group 2:

1. Campus teaching support office to be liaison between library and the academic faculty.
2. Less work for faculty [to have information literacy “done” by library]
3. Market to graduate students

Group 3:

1. Persistence – over time – programs take a long time to build
2. Meeting their needs
3. Teaching a credit course


Group 1:

1. They want a specific topic, like plaigiarism or copyright
2. They only want to give up one class for a one shots
3. How to be sure you are reaching everyone

Group 2:
1. Difficulty contacting adjuncts
2. Academic faculty and librarians who do not buy into information literacy
3. Making information literacy more relevant to the faculty

Group 3:
1. not having faculty status
2. time

Question 2: What are the successes and challenges in incorporating information literacy into curriculum: You might want to include: Content, Structure, Sustainability, and Staffing?


Group 1:
1. Demand certain preparedness
2. Preparing materials to support faculty integrating IL into their classes on their own
3. Get into the curriculum so that students are getting different content at different levels

Group 2:

1. Library support from above
2. Online tutorials
3. Market to academic department’s standards

Group 3:

1. Talk to supervisor
2. Quality of instruction, not quantity
3. Providing instruction where students are (Chatting, etc.)


Group 1:
1. Students not ready for research
2. Don’t want marginalize what librarians do by giving them materials to use on their own
3. Students get repeats

Group 2:
1. Faculty turnover

Group 3:
1. Time and staffing
2. How do we know we are being successful?

Evaluation: List one idea that you will take away from this session. Suggest a topic to brainstorm at a future session.

   Sunday, January 10, 2004
Grand Manchester Hyatt, San Diego

Headcount: 61 total

Introduction (Mark Emmons): It was explained that we were tackling Standard #4 : Helping students to use the information that they find.

It was explained that questions to whole room will be discussed at each table, then recorded on flip charts. Each group will then report their top 3-5 categories.

We were reminded of standard 4: “The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group, uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.”

1) What does it mean to use information effectively?

Table 1:

  • Supporting your thesis
  • Actually answering the question
  • Integrating & communicating the information into their knowledge base
  • Knowing enough about the topic/ having context for the information
  • Handling dissenting information

Table 2:

  • Enable decision making to support argument
  • Create more information/stimulate ideas
  • Understanding of whole process (involves context in which they develop info.)

Table 3:

  • Ability to evaluate information
  • Answering the question/ develop and support a thesis
  • Integrating information
  • Put into own words

Table 4:

  • Supporting thesis
  • Synthesizing the work/ the whole process

Table 5:

  • Jumping to meat of article/ finding main idea
  • Understanding article relevancy
  • Tracking sources
  • Paraphrasing and quoting as using the article

2) How can librarians teach students and partner with faculty to use information effectively?

Table 1

  • Trading step by step for theoretical issues
  • Educate faculty
  • Get in on whole process/ getting in on assignment creation
  • Follow up @ desk

Table 2

  • Simple quizzes to see what they know.
  • “Whatever it takes” – varies depending on local culture.
  • Doing research consultations
  • Working with instructors to discuss their assignments

Table 3

  • Collaborate with faculty
  • Provide a variety of ways – online tutorials
  • Being able to develop relationships with the faculty
  • Follow up with faculty
  • Doing evaluations with the students

Table 4

  • You’ve gotta work with the faculty member from the get go.
  • Having more than one session.
  • Whose role is this? It takes a village.

Table 5

  • Show examples (right and wrong) of info use.
  • Approach faculty “What can we do for you?”
  • Introducing sources that are pro and con/ alternative sources
  • Framing a thesis

3) Share successes & challenges that you have experienced in each of the following:

  • Teaching and learning
  • Partnering
  • Assessment

Table 1:


  • Seeing comfort level improve at desk/ reference stats go up/ students use material b/c of collaboration
  • Faculty word of mouth


  • Faculty believe students already know how to do research
  • Having “final cut” on info lit assignments

Table 2:


  • Communicating back to faculty what we learn about how students are using information through our contact at the reference desk
  • How do we work with faculty whose assignments may not reflect current resources available?.


  • Having plan with faculty member about how info lit with fit into course throughout year.
  • Having Weblogs that could be viewable to not by other students, opens line of communication about the process
  • Comment: importance of asking faculty what they wish they were getting out of student work.

Table 3:


· Resistance from faculty to having instruction.


· Some people bring up accreditation
· Offering to do things for them
· Faculty see successes of students
· Grant to integrate technology – pairing librarians with IT

Table 4:


  • Repeated sessions with class – b/c kept coming back
  • Working with faculty member to help students id good articles (follow up from previous semester)
  • Informal approach to faculty


  • At risk students
  • Approaching faculty
  • Administrative support for school
  • $250 – best quality research paper contest in library ($250 was book store gift certificate). Had to b an A paper. Faculty member had to sign off on it J

Table 5:

Challenge/ opportunity:

  • Getting buy in from faculty for information literacy


  • Time – one shot instruction session – can be hard to fit in standard 4


  • Offer to do a one credit lab attached to the class – so students would be doing this “on their own time”
  • Using Rubrics for assessment

Wrap up discussion:

One person reported that he had used Weblogs in genealogical research class at University of South Florida. He started off with USF servers, then found other places for free Weblogs. Students created Weblogs, then sent professor the address, could see each entry, and of course all date and time stamped. Could see where frustrations were, what they were doing. Commented that this got around problems of paper based research logs. He suggested that blogging is popular, students will not be resistant. Another person reported that she had worked with freshman seminar and used Weblogs so students could chat and reflect.

Announcement: Future of ACRL IS section is at 4:30 in this building.

Request: It was requested that participants a one minute paper to evaluate the session. The focusing question was “Based on today: Is there anything that you plan to do differently. Also: Please let us know of topics that you would like to see in future.”

The meeting was adjourned at 4pm.

Respectfully submitted,

John P. Renaud, Intern

   Saturday, June 21, 2003 4:30-5:30pm
ALA Annual, Toronto

The session was structured around three questions dealing with Information Literacy Standard #3 – Evaluation of Information. There were 43 people attending and they were divided into five groups with a Teaching Methods committee member facilitating each group. Each group had a discussion about each of the three questions with the groups reporting back after each discussion. Below is a summary of the ideas generated.

Question 1: Who is responsible for teaching evaluation of information? How do you get faculty involved?


Librarians should be responsible because they are familiar with information sources through everyday work.
Split responsibility between librarian and faculty
Librarian has to initiate the collaboration
Important to differentiate between computer literacy and information literacy
It may be necessary to explain to faculty what we mean by Information Literacy
Information Literacy “push” needs to come from administration higher up
What is the difference in the way that librarians and faculty teach evaluation of information?
General vs. specific criteria
Problems in articulation of criteria
Guidelines vs. lists of sources
Faculty have knowledge base of information
Metalearning (process of learning) vs. critical thinking about the discipline
Levels of criteria (librarian as generalist; faculty in specific discipline)
Repetition works where other strategies don’t
Reinforcement from professor is helpful
Instruction required by instructor carries more weight
Information Literacy instruction incorporated into course content is most effective
Easier to incorporate in freshman composition; harder in disciplines like business, etc.
Must be stressed as important by librarian and faculty for students to take it seriously
Collaboration with faculty before information literacy instruction imperative – evaluation may not be what faculty want covered.


New faculty don’t define well what they’re looking for in assignments
Faculty reluctant to ask for help
Whether librarians have faculty status can influence this as well
Faculty don’t know what is possible/impossible in library (example: scavenger hunt assignment
Can’t do everything in one session
Selling to faculty
Faculty already not satisfied with students’ sources; that’s why they come to us
Adjusting to situation (How to respectfully disagree with a teacher)
Faculty don’t want model assignments from librarians


Gentle nudges/suggestions to faculty during library instruction sessions
Get syllabus from faculty if possible / use as conversation starter
Require professor to attend the library instruction session WITH the students
Partnering with faculty
Use technology as an inroad (faculty have less of a comfort level and are more willing to hand over to librarian)
Establish relationships with faculty
Departmental meetings
Accreditation visits can be a motivating factor
Faculty can sell idea to other faculty
Don’t be afraid to say No if:
Faculty don’t send over assignment
Faculty can’t attend session
One-credit Information Literacy course with lab for graduates (graded). Librarians initiated this. Small university. Librarian meets individually with all new faculty. Librarians are members of university teaching & learning committee.
Insert into class outside library instruction session
With class reading assignments
Different kinds of evaluation at different stages (saves time for professors later)
Need faculty assignment Web site


When in the process do you teach it?
Evaluation at the beginning, What is the information need?
Ask why are you here?
What do you do when you research?
What kind of information? (Where is it?)
It depends – sometimes best for librarian, other times best for faculty
Evaluation part of everything
Evaluation, compare and contrast different articles Use as initial exercise.
Faculty involvement
Find an example of article misinterpreting studies
Use good assignments as examples
Reality behind claims in the popular media
Faculty ARE concerned – content is already a concern of theirs
Depends on student population? (area of study, level of students)
At Reference Desk we do this at ‘point of need’
Depends on timeframe with students, often last thing on agenda
Using a Web tutorial (10-15 minutes) with form to submit for credit – for how to evaluate Web resources

Question 2: What evaluation criteria do you teach for Web sites and print resources?

Compare scholarly vs. popular
Wolfram University Web site presents different criteria for Web vs. paper
Have students generate criteria
Show example of a resource with dubious authority - “phony” Web sites
Comparing resources with different perspectives on the same issue
Difference between items retrieved in Google vs. subscription resources
Examining authority for hidden bias. Who “owns” the source?
If even faculty don’t understand the importance of using subscription databases, it’s an added challenge.

Currency (varies by discipline)
Older materials can still be useful
New doesn’t always mean good
In context sometimes need retrospective view
Varies by discipline
Gaps in data
Sometimes there are legitimate things on the Web that are older
Authority (Reliability/Credibility – scholarly/popular) – author and publisher and affiliation
Author: credentials (how to establish this? – engage with content)
Bias/Objectivity (Perspective/Point of View), i.e., .gov sites
Print vs. Web (criteria applicable to both)
Authority and responsibility are more of an issue with Web sites.
Source – on Web takes a new dimension
Stability is an issue on the Web

Criteria depend on the information need and student’s context - Who do they want to hear from?
Same criteria for Web & print? Sometimes. Structure is similar – false dichotomy (format is a red herring)
Advertising important – faculty are often unaware of services we can provide
Faculty have difficulty ‘building assignments’ so that they can evaluate how students are evaluating information sources
(First step may be to grade an annotated bibliography before paper is written. Students and faculty are missing importance of process.)
New faculty seem most receptive to instructional services

Many 50-minute instruction sessions are now directed at evaluation, not finding information (Most students can find information in some format but can’t differentiate or ‘rate’ it.)

Question 3: How do you incorporate evaluation criteria into a one-shot instruction session?

Fit in one hour: prioritize and break in to parts. Most time focused on databases. Some time focused on scholarly vs. popular.
Use the hour to whet their appetite to learn more on their own.
Take one scholarly article/journal and ask students to identify differences between it and what they last read
Offer library workshops/seminars. Convince some faculty to require students to attend.
Distribute handout listing criteria
Talk about with instructor
Apply via example
Decide reliable for research?
Checklist to use while looking at resource
Citation and abstract example (from databases)
Question sheet attached
Each student answers questions
Discuss as a class
Select Web sites to be evaluated by authority and work from those.
Extend session, pre-exercise frees up time
Use handouts/worksheets
Start with evaluation as introduction
Discuss scholarly literature, pre-exercise examples of citation/abstract with worksheet students complete, then discuss as group
Post activity – reinforce with later interactions with students at reference desks
At every stage, evaluate research tack (Which database is "good"?)
Database advisor tools
Librarians should be seen as resource for evaluation
Brand library materials whenever possible
Exercises: Fake Web sites? Who uses them?
Do hands-on experiments or visual aids to show method for developing a hypothesis, etc. Leads to critical evaluation /thinking.
Tie to picking a ‘researchable’ topic
One idea: Find a ‘news’ article on a topic that lends to original research. Allow comparisons.
Difficult to do evaluation in a one-shot session – often just little ‘snips’ of evaluation can be included throughout
May work best if ‘active’ – short lecture then have them do it.
Students need to be in ‘driver seat’ (Trade off; don’t keep one student in this position/hot seat).
Look at statistical methodology in particular field
Electronic journals – do we worry about distinction from print?
Private Internet vs. “Public” Internet (fee vs. free)
Notion of filtering – if we pay for it we must have done some evaluation
Peer-reviewed concept (Found via database info supplied on journal/magazine, or Ulrich’s, etc.)
Tie to visual differences (Rolling Stone vs. Scholarly music journal)
Reinforcement of concepts important
Students may hear but do not learn/internalize after one session
Working with faculty/collaboration seems to be key
“Effective communication” as a curriculum requirement includes information literacy component
Can be included in individual courses as in a library courses=institutional level commitment for information literacy
Accrediting bodies may play a role if ‘mandates’ are included/passed down
Ask for second 50-minute session
Assign something before they come to class
Build assessment into all parts of the session
Evaluation of the assignment itself, esp. for graduate students

Submitted by
Terry Taylor (Recorder)

   January 26, 2003 -- Philadelphia, PA

"Assess This!?! Assessing Student Learning and Making it Count"

Approximately 50 people participated in the dicussion. Nicole Auer, Chair of the Teaching Methods Committee of the ACRL Instruction Section, and committee member Beth Ashmore served as overall facilitators. Small groups were facilitated by committee members Patty Durisin, Beth Ashmore, and Mark Emmons.

Nicole opened the meeting with a passage from T. A. Angelo's book, Classroom assessment techniques: a handbook for college teachers. The brainstorming session was set up to primarily focus on one-shot instructions.

The participants were divided up into four groups. The group then discussed in their small groups the following questions:

1) Thinking of your typical class, what were/would be the 3-5 skills/concepts you want students to know when they leave?

The four groups reassembled as one large group and shared highlights from their respective small group. Major and recurring themes from each of the small groups were:

  • Knowledge of Tools (OPAC, databases, reference materials, discipline specific materials/tools)
  • Concepts (keywords, mapping concepts, search fields and terms)
  • Boolean Logic (and other transferable skills)
  • Scholarly vs. popular
  • WWW vs. e-indexes
  • People Resources (i.e., LIBRARIANS)
  • Build Confidence/Reduce Anxiety
  • Physical Locations (current periodicals, stacks, multimedia, etc.)
  • Understanding Citations (how to find a journal)
  • Help Screen Availability
  • Catalogs vs. Databases
  • Methods of Access (virtual reference, remote reference, etc.)
  • Evaluating Search Results/Information
  • Overview of the Library's Website

2) Given those skills, how do/would you assess student learning?

The four groups reassembled as one large group and shared highlights from their respective small group. Major and recurring themes from each of the small groups were:

  • Use of research portfolios/research logs/journaling
  • Focus groups/online surveys with professors and/or TAs (to receive feedback)
  • Pre- and Post-tests
  • In-class worksheet / assignment
  • Hypothetical situation (e.g., "Your friend needs an ________. Where should s/he start?")
  • Annotated, qualitative bibliography
  • Have students teach the librarian
  • Informally observe activity in the library classroom during hands-on activities.
  • 3-2-1 (3 things wanted to learn, 2 things learned, 1 thing already knew, etc.)
  • One-minute paper (one thing learned during session; one thing still confused about)
  • Group work/Work in Teams
  • Free form lab session -- hands-on only after formal instruction
  • Evaluate course assignments after library instruction (resources used, quality, etc.)
  • Collect any sheets used in class for post-class evaluation (boolean logic, building seaches, keywords, etc.)
  • Develop test-out exam for library instruction
  • Ask questions throughout the class instruction
  • Add question or concept to course's exam

3) What do/can you do with the data?

As the larger group, the participants shared the following ideas:

  • From faculty-based focus groups -- determine what was beneficial/not beneficial; alter lay out of class from faculty feedback.
  • Evaluate post-class assignment/worksheet to determine concepts/strategies students didn't understand.
  • If students have specific concepts, tools, etc. that were not taught/shown -- incorporate into class or create an additional class.
  • Walking around class allows librarian to directly give feedback to students.
  • Using accreditation to benchmark and retain data.
  • Adding more complex assignments based on student feedback.
  • Outcomes can be used as tool/data at the university/administration level.
  • From one-minute papers, librarian can directly email class listserv or faculty member to relay the message to students.

Following this discussion, participants discussed as a large group their experiences linking their assessments to other student learning assessment initiatives such as campus-wide, state-wide, or via their accrediting agency.

For more information: Please refer to our Selected Bibliography.

Recorder: Beth Ashmore, Committee Member & Anna Van Scoyoc, Intern

   June 15, 2002 - Atlanta, GA

"Teaching with the Information Literacy Competency Standards: Begin at the Beginning� What is Information? What is an Information Need?"

Approximately 50 people participated in the brainstorming session. Mary MacDonald, Chair of the Teaching Methods Committee of the ACRL Instruction Section, welcomed everybody and opened up the discussion. Participants introduced themselves and signed an attendance sheet. The participants were divided into six groups. They were given about 30 minutes for the discussion, and then each group had a representative to report to the entire group.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 1:

  • Allow students to discover on their own. Have them explain why they chose certain topics/sources.
  • Pick a general topic such as "walking." Ask students to define the topic from broad to more specific.

Ideas for assignments from Group 1:

  • A well-designed scavenger hunt that makes students think about why they would use certain sources.
  • Give students three sources on the same topic: scholarly journal, popular magazine, audiovisual material. Help them see the differences among different types of information.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 2:

  • Have students identify the elements of a research paper.
  • Have students do concept mapping to link their ideas. This can apply to all kinds of assignments. Could use a software called Inspiration.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 3:

  • Let students pick their own topics and discuss among themselves. Have them focus on the process of finding information. Give them a research checklist and have them explain how they went through the process.
  • Usually students don't define research needs. All they care about is where the sources are. Therefore, making them think about why/how requires some reflections on their part.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 4:

  • Have students share for a minute or so how they usually go about finding information.
  • Explain the pros. & cons of using full-text only sources – you might be missing a whole lot of other information.
  • Bring a book truck of books and demonstrate the different ways of organizing them.

Ideas for assignments from Group 4:

  • Ask students to keep a research log in which they record the keywords used, how successful the keywords are, what worked, and what didn't work.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 5:

  • For a business class, ask the students to think who their competitors are, what their sales are, etc.
  • Make the assignments problem-based so that it becomes an eye-opening research process.

Ideas for in-class exercises from Group 6:

  • Randomly pick two newspaper articles and have students analyze them – underline the important words, what you already know, what's irrelevant, who the experts are, what scholarly community might be for this?
  • Have students collaboratively compile an annotated bibliography.
  • Students role-play a fictional person to create primary sources. And then with the understanding of what primary sources are, start looking for them.

Recorder: Jing Qiu

   January 20, 2002 - New Orleans, LA

"Learning With Laughter: Bringing Humor and Creativity into your Teaching"


Discussion facilitated by Joan Campbell of Wellesley College

Joan opened the "Icebreakers" portion of the Brainstorming Session with, appropriately enough, an icebreaker, asking attendees at each of the four discussion tables to brainstorm icebreaker activities/ideas at their respective tables. Participants were given ten minutes to discuss, and take notes on, ideas generated. At the conclusion of the ten-minute period, a representative from each table reported to the entire group on their tableÕs discussion.

Ideas from Table One:

  • Begin an instruction session with an introduction that parodies an "AA" meeting or 12-step session, such as "Hi. I'm a librarian..."
  • Once a class has gotten settled down and ready for the presentation, say nothing. After one minute, ask students what they have learned (this acts as a segue into the lecture session. It piques students' interest as to what they actually might learn once the presentation begins.
  • Use candy as an incentive/prize for responses
  • Inform students that it's "o.k." to interrupt librarians (who are talking to each other) at the reference desk
  • Use games (if there is time) to warm up the session (such as famous pairs -- Fred Astaire and Ginger Rodgers, Rhett Butler and Scarlett O'Hara)
  • Ask students about their previous experience(s) in using the library, good/bad, successful/unsuccessful, etc.
  • Start by handing out a quiz asking basic questions about the library ("How long is the check out period for a book?"). Students can be told that the answers to the questions on the quiz will be given throughout the course of the library session, thus helping to maintain their attention throughout the lecture.
  • Perhaps begin with a library orientation video?

Ideas from Table Two:

  • Have a mini arts & crafts session; working in small groups, ask students to draw their feelings about the library
  • Incorporate cartoons into a presentation (a discussion of copyright concerns accompanied this)
  • Employ enthusiasm, even if you look / sound a bit silly ("The library catalog -- isn't it great?!")
  • Incorporate librarian-related web sites such as the Librarian Avenger, the Belly-Dancing Librarian, and the Lipstick Librarian. It was pointed out, however, that some discretion and pre-lecture review of such sites be done, to avoid showing anything too "colorful" or inappropriate.
  • Ask "seasonal" questions of the students, "What are you doing for...?", "Who's dressing up for Halloween...?"
  • Do personal sharing about yourself and your own library experiences, "I used to hate going to the library..."
  • Ask students questions about their library assignment, what types of information/resources do they need?

Ideas from Table Three:

  • Focus on personal interaction vs. technical interaction
  • Play music before the session begins to make students feel more comfortable in unfamiliar surroundings
  • Ask music (or other) trivia questions
  • Run a continuous loop power point presentation prior to the formal beginning of the session
  • Employ the "treasure chest" concept as discussed in the literature by Trudi Jacobson (It's just a brown box (the library), but look what's hiding inside (books, databases, journals, etc.))
  • Use a "Smart board" in teaching; let the student try it out
  • Use a remote mouse in your lecture -- toss it to a student and let them try it out
  • Ask students the size of the last library they used

Ideas from Table Four:

  • Use an instruction session to show the approachability of librarians
  • Use a deck of cards or different type of buttons to demonstrate how materials in the library are organized
  • In lectures given to specific groups of students, such as athletes, ask them what they're interested in (for example, with athletes, ask them what sport(s) they are interested in
  • Make comparisons that are relevant to students, "Why or how is using the library like learning to drive a car?"
  • Establish rapport; use a white board for students to write on

From the presenters table:

  • Think about the difference types/categories of humor that are possible
  • Have students write their names on stand-up cards and put them on their desk
  • Have students think of one name to describe themselves, then use that word as a search term
  • In a specialized class, such as a poetry class, ask students to share the name of a favorite poem or poet

Additional icebreaker suggestion from attendees:

  • Ask how many students use the Internet, and then ask, "How many of you know HOW to use the Internet?
  • Regarding cell phones ringing during a session, "If your cell phone rings, I'm the one who is going to answer it" or, alternatively "If your cell phone rings (or pager goes off), I'll assume there's a Dr. among us."

Summary of Icebreaker session

  • Use icebreakers to set the tone for your lecture
  • If you get students attention from the beginning, it's easier to keep it.
  • Students stop listening after the first seven minutes of class, so keep icebreakers on hand Ð even for use in the middle of a session.

Recorder: Mara Houdyshell


Nicole Auer, a committee member from Virginia Tech, introduced this segment of the discussion. She set the framework for this part of the session with the idea that props include physical objects (such as a can of Coca-Cola) or analogies to explain concepts, library terminology and research methods to students.

Nicole presented several reasons why librarians may want to consider using props and/or analogies in a library instruction session:

  • They draw from students' previous knowledge and experience by using something to which students can "relate"
  • They can help keep students interested in the topic and concepts being discussed (these students have a short attention span and are bored easily)
  • They can help keep the session interesting for the instructor
  • They can help students get into a "comfort zone"
Nicole referred to research and resources which reinforce the value of using analogies (see our Bibliography).
  • An article in issue 73 of Reference Librarian (Sutherland and Winters) provides a good introduction to the value and underlying pedagogy of using analogies in library instruction sessions.
  • Marcia Baxter Magolda's research is also relevant to the discussion because of her "framework for promoting self-authorship" which involves relating the class content to students' previous and current experiences (Making their own way)
Participants at the session brainstormed at their respective tables about props and analogies they have used successfully in library instruction sessions.

Examples of physical props librarians have used include:

  • Coca-Cola can -- to teach about controlled vocabulary by having students come up with various synonyms for the Coca-Cola (soda, pop, etc.)
  • Toys -- to teach business students about brand names and industry information
  • Russian dolls -- to teach students concepts of broader and narrower LC subject headings
  • Students -- use students themselves (type of clothing, hair color, etc.) to teach about Boolean operators
  • Brown bag with "treasures" inside -- to show the difference between an abstract (superficial) and a journal article
  • Deck of cards, various kinds of buttons or candy -- to explain the organization of the classification system
  • Word magnets used on a board -- have students rearrange and join the words together with Boolean operators to construct search statements
  • Peanut butter and jelly sandwich -- to demonstrate Boolean operators
Examples of analogies librarians have used include:
  • Television - cable vs. "free" stations to explain how to choose a database to search; difference between subscription databases and the "free" Internet; what is available locally vs. nationally
  • Supermarket -- writing a list before going to the store vs. wandering up and down every aisle to explain why it is beneficial to write down an information need, and suggestions about where to search rather than searching "without a plan."
    • Also used to explain how to select a database to search that is appropriate for the chosen topic.
    • Also to explain controlled vocabulary (i.e. spaghetti is in the Pasta aisle)
  • Mall -- shopping in exclusive stores versus a department or general type store (WalMart) to explain why/when to choose a general or specialized database
  • Walt Disney World's Donald Duck Drive to explain the concept of password access to databases.
    • Also used to differentiate between the "free" web vs. subscription-based databases (the road itself is like the "free" web, whereas you have to pay to get onto the rides)
  • Car features, makes/models, test drives -- to explain that databases have different interfaces but use similar concepts for searching and why the first database searched may not be the best one to meet a specific information need.
Recorder: Tammy Sugarman, Georgia State University

For more information, please refer to our Bibliography.

   January 13, 2001 - , Washington, DC

"Information Literacy: Right Time, Right Place"
Laurie Alexander, Chair, convened the meeting. (There were 46 people present for the brainstorming session.)

  • Laurie welcomed guests to the brainstorming session. We will be discussing the types of information literacy skills we should be teaching to various user groups, including freshman, seniors and graduate students.
  • Discussed briefly two information literacy standards
    1. ACRL’s Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education (These are very broad — "a way to talk about information literacy with your faculty".) The Model Statement of Objectives is more specific.
    2. Seven Faces of Information Literacy by Christine Bruce (1997). Bruce describes seven categories of conception in her book.
  • Three information literacy events are upcoming:
    1. Institute for Information Literacy
    2. Immersion Institute
    3. Pre-conference on Information Literacy at ALA Annual in San Francisc
Mary MacDonald, a committee member from University of Rhode Island, began the brainstorming session
  • Defined information literacy as the ability to gather, evaluate and use information effectively.
  • Librarians need administrative support for these projects
  • Mentioned 4 user populations: undergraduate students, graduate students, nontraditional students, and community college students.
  • Librarians need to teach concepts and skills will follow.
  • Listed examples of information literacy projects:
    1. Online tutorials
    2. One-shot classes
    3. Collaboration with faculty
    4. Modules
    5. Credit courses
  • It’s a good strategy to improve on what is in place rather than abandoning it.
  • Talked about her experience at the University of Rhode Island. Took an existing module and added to it.
    1. Wanted to put a face on information literacy at her school.
    2. Started with a one-credit course.
    3. Developed a three-credit course that now has six sections.
    4. Modified a graduate class to add information literacy concepts.
  • Asked two questions to begin discussion:
    1. At what level/when do students need certain competencies?
    2. Are certain tools better for teaching information literacy?
  • Participants gave examples of information literacy initiatives at their institutions:
    • Online Modules for classes
    • Integrating information literacy competencies in freshman English classes
    • Credit Courses
    • One time sessions
    • Developing information literacy goals
  • One participant spoke of her difficulty in compiling a list of one-credit information literacy courses to help her write a course proposal for such a course tied into information literacy competencies
Information literacy skills for undergraduates
  • Nicole Auer, a committee member from Virginia Tech, introduced this discussion.
  • Do we need to teach the "big picture"? Do we teach where things are? Do we teach critical thinking skills?
  • Nicole gave a few of her findings from a survey of students on their information literacy skills.
  • Do we need to restructure our web sites and teaching to move away from teaching the catalog and databases and instead discuss concepts that students "get"? Is this idea passé?
  • We need to integrate information literacy into other classes.
  • Talk with faculty to find out the skills they want to teach
  • Make faculty information literacy partners
  • Team-teach classes with faculty
  • Teach fewer one-shot sessions and focus on teaching skills in semester-long credit classes.
  • Use online course software such as WebCT.
  • Center information literacy training in academic courses and assignments.
  • ACRL guidelines are not library guidelines. We need to remember this.
  • One participant describes his involvement in a capstone class, which made him aware of the need for this heavy involvement by librarians earlier in the students’ academic career.
  • Students may know more than they think they know but simply lack confidence.
  • Do we need to teach fewer skills so we don’t overwhelm students?
  • One participant noted that all of her library’s instruction is course-integrated. Faculty are giving broader assignments to allow students freedom to explore but we may need to encourage faculty to narrow the breadth of assignments so students are not overwhelmed.
  • Some skills need to be taught earlier now, such as Boolean and scholarly vs. non-scholarly periodicals.
  • Nicole asked if we can assume upper-level students have core IL skills. This spurred discussion about spreading information literacy instruction across the curriculum.
  • Need to bridge gap with Freshman and the language of Information Literacy (databases, Boolean,�) How do we teach all that in a one-shot class?
  • Students have to have a "need to know" to learn library skills. We need to be concrete rather than abstract.
  • Librarians should work with learning communities to develop semester-long classes.
  • We need to have active learning sessions, and let students get their hands dirty/ Encourage them to experiment. Semester-long courses allow time for mistakes, which are good learning experiences.
  • Combine the course with a web site to reach a wider audience. This gives 24-hour access to teaching tools. Can include interactive quizzes.
  • Link understanding of disciplines as knowledge-producers with databases. This is a critical thinking skill.
  • One participant conducted a user-study asking students what databases and indexes are, and the students did not know.
  • How do we design our web sites to help students? Should we say "Find Books" rather than "Catalog" and "Find Articles" rather than "Databases".
  • Should we teach about types of resources?
  • Teach about web evaluation by having students compare the Ford and Consumer Reports web pages for information about the tire recall.
  • Should we show students how to find "only full-text sources" when they ask?
Information literacy skills for graduate students
  • Tammy Sugarman, a committee member from Georgia State University, introduced this discussion.
  • Graduate students may know less than we expect.
  • One challenge is the unevenness of the skills sets of graduate students.
  • We need to tie our teaching to an event, and show how it generates information, and then how you find that information.
  • To reach out to graduate students, target graduate student groups and attend graduate students orientations.
  • Students are concerned that the faculty expect then to already have these skills.
  • Benefits of working with graduate students:
    1. You develop long-term relationships as students progress,
    2. Graduate students who teach may bring in their classes based on their relationship with you, and
    3. Graduate students will share their good experiences with other graduate students and faculty.
  • The numbers are small enough that you can set up individual appointments with graduate students.
  • Find ways for them to get to know about you and who you are.
  • Offer to be an adjunct to research methods classes. Approach departments directly about this to institutionalize it, so it carries from semester to semester as professors change.
  • Students in professional programs may be less confident of their skills but more willing to ask for help.
  • Provide multiple access points for graduate students.
Information literacy skills for faculty
  • Elizabeth Hutchins, a committee member from Saint Olaf College, introduced this discussion. As time was running out, she shared her thoughts.
  • We must be gentle with faculty.
  • Faculty may be a generation behind in their knowledge of library technology.
  • Faculty may not know that we are willing to collaborate with them.
  • We need to understand their discourse.
  • Faculty may need time or money to develop information literacy based assignments
  • "It’s not an issue of technology; it’s an issue of pedagogy."
  • Faculty may need to learn new ways of teaching.
  • How do we teach faculty to create assignments that teach information literacy competencies. One school did a multi-day intensive workshop for faculty and rewarded participants with laptops.
  • Offer web-based faculty training. This leads to online bibliographic instruction for students.
  • Develop subject-based information literacy competencies.

Respectfully submitted,
Rebecca Bichel
January 24, 2001

   July 8, 2000 - Chicago, IL

"Librarians on the Move: Collaboration and Cooperation Techniques that Promote Engaging Learning Environments"

27 people gathered for this brainstorming session.

Nancy Dewald began the session by introducing the topic and describing the three categories for the breakout sessions:

  • Librarian/Faculty collaborations, whether in the classroom or in special projects, led by Mary MacDonald
  • Learning Communities -- these are 2 or more courses linked together so that a cohort of 20-30 students attends a cluster of classes together. Since the courses are linked, the faculty are collaborating, and librarians can work closely with other faculty throughout the semester. Ross Christensen led this discussion.
  • Other partnerships involve cooperative projects with
    • campus computer centers,
    • student groups, or
    • other campus groups, and Laurie Alexander led this discussion.

Summaries of these discussions follow.

Partnering with Faculty

Fifteen people broke out of our larger group to discuss ideas for partnering with faculty. Everyone introduced themselves and briefly mentioned the types of partnerships (or lack thereof!) with faculty at their institutions:
  • working with first year programs
  • senior seminars
  • doing presentations to faculty on designing effective library assignments
Other topics discussed:
  • How to develop/integrate information literacy components into discipline-related classes without coming on too strong.
  • Difficulty of working with adjunct faculty—one solution is to develop Web modules to get to those students.
  • Working with faculty to make Web pages with library resources
  • Western Massachusetts Five College-Bryn Mawr conference in Philadelphia—3 year-- where teams of four—faculty, academic computing, library, and student—work together to design Web courses and evaluate existing ones.
  • Happy story of motivated faculty member partnering with librarian on designing both assignment and Web page. Librarian worked through possible topics first, and together they made a custom-designed Web page of resources.
  • How to meet faculty? Some folks go to faculty meetings, dept. meetings, develop informal friendships. Need for administrative support was noted.
  • Happy story of faculty saying she didn't need any library instruction for her class. Librarian asked for 10-15 minutes at beginning of a class anyway & students were so interested they asked for librarian to come back. Librarian came back 5 more times for 10-15 minutes. Very appealing cause can do "just in time" help rather than whole class at once
  • Discussion of "university 101" courses—too soon for most students to learn about library.
  • Information literacy programs, especially discipline-specific. If you're a sociology major, what should you know by the end of your four years?
  • Trouble with getting faculty involved in general with the library for collection development, etc. They have other priorities.
  • Create a faculty distribution list, esp. for disciplines. Can send an email re: new databases/resources. One person mentioned doing it monthly so faculty knew that they had a monthly report but also knew they would not be overwhelmed w/email. Copy computing folks on messages too.
  • Unanimous opinion that reference stats are going down, but we do more instruction at the desk. How to find other ways to provide instruction to students who are not coming in? Create Web pages.
  • Senior seminars—contact the students and get their topics and meet with them one on one.
  • If you have an idea for faculty, write out a game plan and bring it to them. Don't just talk about it, bring a product.

-- Joan Campbell

Learning Communities

The participants in the discussion had varying degrees of experience, ranging from none to substantial, with learning communities. One member of the group teaches a 1 credit course and the moderator teaches a 3 credit course, both in learning communities settings.

The moderator began with a brief introduction. Learning Communities are a way of organizing the curriculum. They often involve linking 2 or more courses so that a relatively small cohort of students (10-30) attends a cluster of classes together. Learning communities share some basic principles: they stress student collaboration, faculty collaboration, integration of the curriculum, and they often focus on first-year students.

Members of the group with experience in Learning Communities added that clusters of courses are often unified around a general theme and that foundation courses (such as freshman composition) are often included in the clusters.

A question was raised about the numbers of students reached by library instruction classes in learning communities and about the resources required to teach these classes. It was acknowledged that relatively small numbers of students are reached in a class, that significant resources (staff and time) are required, and that this is an important consideration for planning to participate in learning communities.

It was commented that because learning communities stress collaboration they provide librarians with an opportunity to work closely with faculty in other disciplines to create course integrated library instruction. The emphasis on integrating the curriculum encourages connecting library instruction to other course content.

It was also commented that participation in learning communities may provide librarians with an opportunity to discuss with faculty and administrators the ACRL standards for information literacy competencies and the role of library instruction in the curriculum.

It was asked how faculty, including librarians, are recruited to participate in learning communities programs. It was the experience of discussion group members that faculty participate voluntarily.

Lastly the discussion turned to pedagogy in learning communities. Learning communities often stress teaching methods, such as active learning and student collaboration, that are widely used in library instruction. Therefore, librarians may not only be comfortable teaching in a learning communities setting, they may be in a position to make a strong pedagogical contribution.

-- Ross A. Christensen

Other Partnerships

An Example of Collaboration
The Shapiro Undergraduate Library at the University of Michigan, in order to participate more meaningfully in the campus-wide Freshman Orientation, contacted the University's Information Technology Department and the New Student Program department to help create an interactive library component to the orientation. Comprised of one representative from each department (ITD, Library and New Student Programs), the team designed a module that consisted of a video tape, faculty presentation and hands-on tutorial. Each department shared the costs of development and production.

Collaboration between the library, ITD and New Student Programs has been ongoing since the initial orientation module was created, allowing the module to be updated and revised as necessary. The main challenge of the collaboration was establishing common goals for each team member to work towards. While this can be a time consuming process, due to the various perspectives of the people involved, developing a shared set of goals and objectives is essential to the success of any project.

Other Possibilities for Collaboration

  • Student groups
    • Literature groups may want to read their work at the library
    • Students who are leaning towards graduate school and focused on research may want special training
    • Technology Fee committees – Usually made up of students and administrators/staff, librarians can gain a seat on the committee and urge that funds be spent on library technology
    • Athletes – may need additional teaching
    • Student Friends of the Library – students pay a nominal fee to be a Friend. The Friends group could provide feedback about library services
  • Administrators and administrative staff
    • Often have information needs (e.g. research for the boss) and need training
  • Misc. University Constituents
    • Academic Affairs committees – a librarian's presence can influence decisions and keep library staff apprised of upcoming events, policies, etc.
  • Parents
    • Work with parents during Freshman Orientation or gear part of the orientation towards them
    • Parents' Clubs on campus may have funds to donate to the library for the purposes of enhancing library instruction (new software, technology, hardware, etc.)
  • College/University Development Office
    • Can be beneficial but librarians need to ensure that licensing agreements are not broken (e.g. access to electronic databases for alumni promised in return for funding)
  • Establish common goals and objectives
  • Prepare a proposal for a specific project (have an idea to present)
  • Send the proposal to multiple departments; somebody in one of them may be interested in collaboration
  • Always state what's in it for the collaborator, how it will benefit their department, and what the library brings to the project

-- Shellie Jeffries

Continues: Brainstorming Sessions, 1994-1999


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