History of the Code of Ethics
1939 Code of Ethics for Librarians
Flora Belle Ludington, chairman of the Code of Ethics Committee, moved the adoption of a Code of Ethics, copies of which had been distributed during November. The code printed in full below, was unanimously approved and it was:
“Voted, That the committee be continued with the request that it prepare a Code of Practice.”
- The library as an institution exists for the benefit of a given constituency, whether it be the citizens of a community, members of an educational institution, or some larger or more specialized group. Those who enter the library profession assume an obligation to maintain ethical standards of behavior in relation to the governing authority under which they work, to the library constituency, to the library as an institution and to fellow workers on the staff, to other members of the library profession, and to society in general.
- The term librarian in this code applies to any person who is employed by a library to do work that is recognized to be professional in character according to standards established by the American Library Association.
- This code sets forth principles of ethical behavior for the professional librarian. It is not a declaration of prerogatives nor a statement of recommended practices in specific situations.
I. RELATION OF THE LIBRARIAN TO THE GOVERNING AUTHORITY
- The librarian should perform his duties with realization of the fact that final jurisdiction over the administration of the library rests in the officially constituted governing authority. This authority may be vested in a designated individual, or in a group such as a committee or board.
- The chief librarian should keep the governing authority informed on professional standards and progressive action. Each librarian should be responsible for carrying out the policies of the governing authority and its appointed executives with a spirit of loyalty to the library.
- The chief librarian should interpret decisions of the governing authority to the staff, and should act as liaison officer in maintaining friendly relations between staff members and those in authority.
- Recommendations to the governing authority for the appointment of a staff member should be made by the chief librarian solely upon the basis of the candidate’s professional and personal qualifications for the position. Continuance in service and promotion should depend upon the quality of performance, following a definite and known policy. Whenever the good of the service requires a change in personnel, timely warning should be given. If desirable adjustment cannot be made, unsatisfactory service should be terminated in accordance with the policy of the library and the rules of tenure.
- Resolutions, petitions, and requests of a staff organization or group should be submitted through a duly appointed representative to the chief librarian. If a mutually satisfactory solution cannot be reached, the chief librarian, on request of the staff, should transmit the matter to the governing authority. The staff may further request that they be allowed to send a representative to the governing authority, in order to present their opinions in person.
II. RELATION OF THE LIBRARIAN TO HIS CONSTITUENCY
- The chief librarian, aided by staff members in touch with the constituency, should study the present and future needs of the library, and should acquire materials on the basis of those needs. Provision should be made for as wide a range of publications and as varied a representation of viewpoints as is consistent with the policies of the library and with the funds available.
- It is the librarian’s responsibility to make the resources and services of the library known to its potential users. Impartial service should be rendered to all who are entitled to use the library.
- It is the librarian’s obligation to treat as confidential any private information obtained through contact with library patrons.
- The librarian should try to protect library property and to inculcate in users a sense of their responsibility for its preservation.
III. RELATIONS OF THE LIBRARIAN WITHIN HIS LIBRARY
- The chief librarian should delegate authority, encourage a sense of responsibility and initiative on the part of staff members, provide for their professional development, and appreciate good work. Staff members should be informed of the duties of their positions and the policies and problems of the library.
- Loyalty to fellow workers and a spirit of courteous cooperation, whether between individuals or between departments, are essential to effective library service.
- Criticism of library policies, service, and personnel should be offered only to the proper authority for the sole purpose of improvement of the library.
- Acceptance of a position in a library incurs an obligation to remain long enough to repay the library for the expense incident to adjustment. A contract signed or agreement made should be adhered to faithfully until it expires or is dissolved by mutual consent.
- Resignations should be made long enough before they are to take effect to allow adequate time for the work to be put in shape and a successor appointed.
- A librarian should never enter into a business dealing on behalf of the library which will result in personal profit.
- A librarian should never turn the library’s resources to personal use, to the detriment of services which the library renders to its patrons.
IV. RELATION OF THE LIBRARIAN TO HIS PROFESSION
- Librarians should recognize librarianship as an educational profession and realize that the growing effectiveness of their service is dependent upon their own development.
- In view of the importance of ability and personality traits in library work, a librarian should encourage only those persons with suitable aptitudes to enter the library profession and should discourage the continuance in service of the unfit.
- Recommendations should be confidential and should be fair to the candidate and the prospective employer by presenting an unbiased statement of strong and weak points.
- Librarians should have a sincere belief and a critical interest in the library profession. They should endeavor to achieve and maintain adequate salaries and proper working conditions.
- Formal appraisal of the policies or practices of another library should be given only upon the invitation of that library’s governing authority or chief librarian.
- Librarians, in recognizing the essential unity of their profession, should have membership in library organizations and should be ready to attend and participate in library meetings and conferences.
V. RELATION OF THE LIBRARIAN TO SOCIETY
- Librarians should encourage a general realization of the value of library service and be informed concerning movements, organizations, and institutions whose aims are compatible with those of the library.
- Librarians should participate in public and community affairs and so represent the library that it will take its place among educational, social, and cultural agencies.
- A librarian’s conduct should be such as to maintain public esteem for the library and for library work.
Members of the Code of Ethics Committee submitting the foregoing report are John S. Cleavinger, Coit Coolidge, Edwin Sue Goree Helen L. Purdum, Alfred Rawlinson, Rena Reese, Frank K. Walter, Ruth Worden, and Flora B. Ludington, chairman.
Source: “Midwinter Council Minutes,” American Library Association Bulletin 33 no. 2 (1939): 128–129.
Related Files1939 Code of Ethics for Librarians (PDF File)
1939 Code of Ethics for Librarians (.doc)